Feel Good, Feel Better, Feel Wonderful

Keep ur mind in the vertical motion
Always looking up

Prince – Feel Good, Feel Better, Feel Wonderful – LotusFlow3r

 

Earlier in the year Jude Huton @judehunton  asked me to present at   which took place on 9th June. The following blog is par of my presentation and slides – without my waffle in between.  My talk was suitable for any subject or phase. If are a different subject teacher just replace the English resources for your own subject/key stage. I have split KS4 and KS3 strategies/interventions otherwise this blog will go on and on; you can read about KS4 here.

KS3 Interventions

I do need to state in advance I work in a small, private independent school and I fully understand that makes managing classes/students easier than in a large secondary.  As a department again we’ve seen significant progress with student standardised scores increasing dramatically through the specific starters and homework put in place.

Starters

The first issue I tackled was SPaG through starters. I created one starter per lesson with answers. The ppts are basic but all follow the same format – here’s an example of some of the starters I’ve put together:

ks3 startersks3 starters

ks3 starters

I create one per lesson, with answers. These have worked because:

  1. they form a routine for students
  2. they get students writing quickly, but accurately in a short time frame
  3. they get 5 SPaG questions (blue slide), then mark immediately (green slide)
  4. there’s consistency across classes, all use them.

How we will improve for 18/19 – students all purchase a small dictionary (and a grammar rulebook) at the start of year 7, but I’ve rarely seen them use them. By making some of the slides dictionary based students are forced to use them. The hope here is using a dictionary will become part of every English lesson. Something I rarely see at the moment.

Another issue I saw was some students finished the work quickly, then twiddled thumbs until others catch up. From Sept they will be encouraged to work from a grammar book until all students have completed the five tasks.  For some students teachers did print out the starters.

We want our students to learn more vocabulary – we all know this is key – to do this I’ve built some starters (see slide 3), which looks at 5 words for students to learn/answer questions on, in context. This is continued the next day, using the same 5 words (see slide 5) but different questions.

Homework

I’ve mimicked the weekly homework we set at KS4, for KS3. Students are given a piece of text to read, then have to answer anywhere between 6-14 multiple choice questions. These are saved on PDF and uploaded to our homework platform. Here’s an example of a piece of prose and a poem used:

KS3 homework

How we will improve for 18/19 – these homeworks have worked well. To improve for this year I will issue parents with a list of the homework titles so they can check homework/scores etc.

I’ve also created some Quizlet simple 5-word weekly spelling tests for years 7-9. If you haven’t used Quizlet get on it – it’s really easy to use:

quizlet

You can have a little go on this ‘sample test’ I’ve put together: Test – 5 spellings 

Students can download the app and do these quickly on their phones! All the options from learn, test and match are just so easy to use. Note to use ‘spell’ you need to use a browser, not Quizlet app. I think these will prove very useful.

Once you create them, you can do any of the above – I’ve keyed in the words and meanings. I’ve limited to 5 words as we already have the comprehension homework.

reigleuth

We know students learn from a simple to complex order so our SOW need to reflect this. As a department we are revamping all our SOW to refelct the skills needed for KS4.

KS3 sow

 

All our SOW will have a Knowledge Organiser (fancy term for a glossary) with key terms we want our students to learn for that unit. These will be kept by students in simple folders and build up through the units/years.

KS3 KO.png

I’ve built these terms into Quizlet tests for homework and they’ve been built into the SOW individual lessons (gaps above are because I am still working on it!).  This means every student will learn the same regardless of teacher or ability (thanks Dawn @missdcox  ).  Terms are used in class (more dictionary work) and in homework and will build on each other into KS4.

A few other strategies I’m putting in place from September ’18:

  1. I’d like students to number lessons, that way ‘if’ a student is absent they can catch work up – easier for me to keep track of missed lessons.
  2. Students will be given a table to list their scores from both starters and homework (spelling and comprehension test). This means I can check any issues quickly and intervene early:

Capture2

 

Finally – I asked my old SENCO from my previous school to give me details of their KS3 interventions, which were considered a strength of the school. This is what they did well:

– We arranged for all students with comprehension scores lower than 85 to be tested for their reading accuracy ability.

– If their reading accuracy standardised score is also lower than 85 they receive personalised phonics support to assist them. We have three groups in Year 7 and two in Year 8 and two in Year 9.

– They are tested each full term for reading accuracy. If they improve they go up a group or back to the literacy form, (I ran the literacy form).

– The weakest also have daily intervention for 50 minutes in small groups, no larger than 4, using a range of approaches including precision teaching.

– We also have vocabulary building interventions. Students work on a set number of words using games, rhymes to develop their knowledge, spelling and use of the word. These are measured using tests before and after new word groups.

(In an ideal world we would also offer support for those who have low reading comprehension abilities but this would probably create another three literacy groups.)

We also have study skills for those who still have weak literacy intervention.

After school reading club also takes place, simply reading. They are excused from homework for completing this.

This has been acknowledged by Ofsted as strong practice, they referenced it to catch up, we use SEN budget for this. Catch up funding covers all of those who haven’t met expected by the end of KS2, our reading assessments do not discriminate between those who scored above or below, it isn’t therefore specific to KS2 catch up fund, if that makes sense!

 

This blog links to our intervention and strategies in KS4 . You can read about our KS4 strategies and interventions here.

Thank you for reading!

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Get Yo Groove On

I’m usually workin’ both night and day
No time 4 fun

Prince – Get Yo Groove On – Emancipation

 

Earlier in the year, I was thrilled to be asked by Jude Huton @judehunton  to present at   which took place on 9th June. The following blog is part of my presentation and slides – without my waffle in between.  My talk was suitable for any subject or phase. If you are a different subject/phase teacher just replace the English resources for your own subject/key stage. I have also split KS4 and KS3 strategies/interventions otherwise this blog will go on and on; you can read about KS3 here.

I took a big risk this year and decided to put all my eggs in one basket, rather than offer several interventions, then not know which did or didn’t work I only used one central intervention which was run by myself.

I do need to state in advance I work in a small, private independent school and I fully understand that makes managing classes/students easier than in a large secondary.  The interventions have been successful with our students showing the highest % of progress I’ve ever seen and when I questioned students they said the interventions were helping them improve.

Targeting underachieving students

As teachers we want all students to reach their potential.

But how do you do that?  How do you get each student to be as successful as they can be?  Here are some ideas and ways you can use, or pick and mix from – after all, context is key. What works in one school, or for one student, may not work for others.

DWilliams

First, why don’t interventions work?  I’ve worked in schools where we’ve done all of the following – sometimes with the same student!

planA.png

If one strategy doesn’t work, not to worry we have plan b, c, d…quite honestly, no wonder students were confused! But why is that?

  • Tests often mislead more than inform.
  • Some skills are harder to monitor.
  • Students need intervention in the area they are weakest in.
  • You need to use strategies that have worked elsewhere.  But that doesn’t mean the program will work for you. Research-based doesn’t mean that it will work automatically; you have to make such programs work. Visit other schools similar to yours.
  • Don’t put an intervention in and assume the problem is solved.
  • Intervention has to involve everyone; SLT, MLT, class teacher, student, parent/carer!
  • Don’t just leave up to the intervention, find moments for these students in class!
  • Involve parents in their programs as well.
  • Put strategies in place that help struggling students become successful!

I’ve worked in some schools where class teachers would teach students one way, intervention teachers another. No wonder we didn’t see students improve as much as we hoped.  Departments need consistency – not in the way they teach, but the success criteria delivered to students to get the best marks.

swellerThe first thing I did was to take the above advice; I broke the exam paper down.  After mocks, I wanted to know exactly what our students could/couldn’t do.  I went through:

  • An exam paper
  • mark scheme
  • SAM provided by exam board
  • Examiner’s comments

Using all those, I mocked up a student response analysis sheet for each exam they sat in English. These were for teachers but kept in the student’s file. All I wanted to know was ‘can they do something well, or not’.

AO

Teachers completed these for their groups as they marked. No comments needed, just a tick or cross. This helped me decide the intervention needed for each student, they were also grouped together by need (AO). Here’s a completed one – So this student:

skils

chose a quote from the right area, but not the correct quote to get the mark! However, this is only worth 1 mark.

only scored 2/6 because they didn’t analyse the quotes in relation to question.

student scored 6/15 because they didn’t ‘evaluate’ even though they used quotes etc – This was the priority AO as student lost 9 marks.

 

These worked well, but if I am honest were time-consuming to analyse. I had to go through each one and enter data into a spreadsheet.

How will I improve for 18/19 – I will use an online version eg google/microsoft forms instead of paper. This way staff enter data and I can analyse immediately.

bruner

Using the analysis sheets and data, I created a set of AO specific questions in the same style as the exam questions with a short text, question or prompt (mini exam questions, scaffolded and differentiated with sentence starters, hints). I made loads of these for each AO! Then each week I would visit students in form and ran the intervention sessions. These worked because the sheets (see below) broke the AO skill down into small chunks and students were able to slowly, over time, discover facts and relationships for themselves.

ao2-e1533072184365.pngAO2

This was because:

  • the AOs were in taught in isolation (go back to Sweller image at the start)
  • Students read a variety of short unseen texts, so became more adept at selecting correct information (see Bruner)
  • they only had 20 mins to read/answer – it got them used to writing quickly!
  • the short space also ensured succinct answers
  • The targetted AOs meant students worked in groups of same need.
  • They didn’t take me long to read/mark so could give instant feedback

Here are some completed ones:

completed.png

Grouping students together and breaking down the exam paper meant students were also able to discuss ideas with other students on the same AO.

cognitive.png

How will I improve for 18/19 – I will begin intervention from September not January, the routine is key with students.  I would also follow any issues up much sooner with class teacher/student/parent etc.

Other strategies used in the classroom

The above is how I, as HOD, and my department tackled intervention. Our data showed significant progress using those strategies convincing me to continue with them, developing them further.  The following are other strategies we used in class and homework:

  1. Starters – I put together some simple 5-minute starters using language and literature skills – I have tweeted these out.

starter

2. For September I want myself and team to get better at live modelling using our visualiers so that students can see how to structure responses.

bandura

To aid this I’ve created extract based Knowledge Organisers for the teachers focusing on key extracts/lines from texts. I made this one using Amy Forrester’s (@amymayforrester )A Christmas Carol Sliced resources she tweeted out:

ACC

 

Eventually I hope everyone in my department creates them as they go along for key texts/scenes/lines, they can be added to year on year as you teach, so eventually, I hope we end up with a bank of high-quality extract based teaching resources.

3. I used Chris Curtis (@Xris32 ) 200-word challenge for homework. You can read more about them here: 200 Word Challenge (see image below for example).

As a department, we set a two-part homework for KS4:

  1. students need to read a text, could be fiction or non-fiction – this gave them more opportunities to read new and challenging texts.
  2. students need to answer a question based on the text – often topics they have zero interest in.

200 w

The text to read and the task to complete are saved separately to PDF and uploaded to our homework platform.

My last strategy in the classroom is thanks to the lovely Becky (notoriously known as @shadylady222  ). This is a teacher that achieves amazing value added to students at her school. It can be easy to get good grades when you have well behaved/high achievers to begin, not so easy when they’re not. Anyway, a few years back Becky tweeted two documents I’ve used again and again but with different texts.

The first is connected to the vocabulary choices made by KS4 students when analysing literature. By giving them a set of words to memorise, their analysis improves immediately. Becky has tweeted these out, the one on the left is the original Of Mice and Men and my ripped off version for A Christmas Carol.

becky1

acc fr

 

The second inspired by a few on twitter; firstly Claire Hill (@Claire_Hill_ ) tweeted back in 2015 on the banishment of PEE and much more effective What Why How:

Capture

Capture2

 

and Louisa (@englishluluis ) inspired Becky’s attempting to dump any form of PEEing and instead focusing on 3 qs- What? How? Why? Again these have been tweeted out:

becky13

All of the above are not set in stone, no strategy should be. They evolve as we work out the strengths and weaknesses.

For September 18/19 I will also be creating interleaved starters for all the texts we use (I haven’t started making these yet) and I’ve already begun to create mini Quizlet quote tests for the texts we use. As you can see below I limit to 5-15 terms/quotes to learn so I can set a couple of these a week.  I have made these for all the texts and poetry cluster to help students learn quotes and subject terminology. They take minutes to create.

ACC quotes

You can have a little go on this ‘sample test’ I’ve put together for KS3 spellings: Test – 5 spellings 

Students can download the app and do these quickly on their phones! All the options from learn, test and match are just so easy to use. (Note to use ‘spell’ you need to use a browser, not Quizlet app. I think these will prove very useful).

Once you create them, you can do any of the above – I’ve keyed in the words and meanings. I’ve limited to 5-15 terms/quotes as we already have the comprehension homework. I’ve also used Quizlet for literary terms/definitions (subject terminology).

 

These are some strategies I’m putting in place from September ’18 (KS3 in particular) but I will also try to do these for KS4 where possible:

  1. I’d like students to number lessons, that way ‘if’ a student is absent they can catch work up – easier for me to keep track of missed lessons.
  2. Students will be given a table to list their scores from both starters and homework (spelling and comprehension test). This means I can check any issues quickly and intervene early:

Capture2

If you aren’t keen on the above, here are 6 further strategies, according to research, that do work:

  • Metacognition and self-regulation
  • Collaborative learning
  • Effective feedback
  • Homework
  • 1:1 tuition
  • Peer tutoring

 

Finally, we want to be in a position where we don’t need an intervention – getting it right in the classroom from year 7.  To do that we need to get our KS3 right. You can read about our KS3 strategies and interventions here.

Thank you for reading!

Emotions & Body Language

Great Narratives, Descriptions and Monologues

How do you write more interesting descriptions? Describing people can be tricky because it’s easy to slip into clichés.

Students often write stuff like this: “She was tall. Her dark hair …”

Try some of these resources to help you:

  1. A ppt filled with great character descriptions –  Characters
  2. PDF – How to translate Emotions into Words!
  3. Word – How To Translate Emotions Into Written Body Language

 

GDPR

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1000 X’s & O’s – Component 2: Non-fiction and Transactional Writing

You work so hard, you really do
I don’t think that anyone could work as hard as you

Prince -1000 X’s & O’s  –  HITnRUN – Phase One

 

Getting Started: GCSE (9-1) English  – Edexcel

Moving schools means, learning a new spec! Teachers deserve lots of X’x & O’s! For further information on Edexcel go to their website here.  I’ve written this blog to help any newbie to the spec, and to get it straight in my head myself. I will revisit it and ‘edit’ until I am happy with it.  1000 X’s & O’s – Component 2: Non-fiction and Transactional Writing is part of a set of two blogs. The first can be found here.

 

 

1000 X’s & O’s – Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

You work so hard, you really do
I don’t think that anyone could work as hard as you

Prince -1000 X’s & O’s  –  HITnRUN – Phase One

 

Getting Started: GCSE (9-1) English  – Edexcel

Moving schools means, learning a new spec! Teachers deserve lots of X’x & O’s! For further information on Edexcel go to their website here.  I’ve written this blog to help any newbie to the spec, and to get it straight in my head myself. I will revisit it and ‘edit’ until I am happy with it.  1000 X’s & O’s – Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing is part of a set of two blogs. The second can be found here.

 

Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

  • Total marks: 64
  • Weighting: 40%
  • Questions to answer: 5 (4 reading; 1 writing)
  • Exam time: 1 hour 45 minutes

 

Paper 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

1 hour 45 minutes

Part a: Reading (1 hour)

  • Q1: Identifying a quotation (5 mins) – AO1
  • Q2: Making inferences (5 mins) – AO1
  • Q3: Analysing language and structure (15 mins) – AO2
  • Q4: Evaluation (20 mins) – AO4

Part b: Writing (45 mins)

  • Q5/6: Imaginative writing – AO5/6

For the purpose of this blog I have used Pearson Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 GCSE (9-1) in English Language Paper 1 (1EN0/01) from The Mortal Immortal: Mary Shelley:

Section A: Reading

The focus of this section is on reading and comparing non-fiction and literary nonfiction texts from the 20th and 21st centuries.

Question 1 – Tests AO1 skills – understanding of explicit and implicit information. (1) mark available.

For this question, students must give the only acceptable answer from the board eg

‘A tub had caught all’

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q1) From lines 7–9, identify a phrase which describes what happens to the colour of the
liquid when it changes.

Capture

Accept one of the following:

• ‘[it will] turn white’
• ‘[and then] emit golden flashes’
• ‘the rose-colour fades’

Question 2– Tests AO1 skills – understanding of explicit and implicit information. (2) marks available.

For this question, students can use quotes or their own words, using the question focus in a very simple/basic sentence strucure eg

  • he shows them the whole house
  • he encourages them to search ‘well’

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q2 From lines 1–10, give two ways tiredness affected Cornelius. You may use your own words or quotations from the text.

Capture2

Accept any reasonable answer based on lines 1-10, up to a maximum of 2 marks.
Quotations and candidate’s own words are acceptable. For example:

  • although Cornelius is anxious ‘sleep weighted upon his eyelids’
  • Cornelius has to throw off tiredness with almost superhuman energy/‘he threw off drowsiness with more than human energy’
  • sleep is described as stealing his senses/‘again and again it stole away his senses’
  • he is described as talking in a quiet and indistinct way: ‘murmured’/ he almost falls asleep talking as the narrator says the last words were muttered ‘in sleep’.

 

Question 3 – Tests AO2 skills – Language, structure and form (6 marks)

The focus of AO2 is on the ways writers use language to create effect; the focus is on specific writer techniques (rather than a judgement of overall success of type, form or
purpose, which is AO4).

Language analysis – take these words and phrases from an (made-up) extract describing weather:

  • The words ‘barged’, ‘fought back’ and ‘enemy outside’ suggest the people are in a battle against nature; ‘enemy’ suggests hostility or an element that could weaken and therefore could imply that the personification of the weather is behaving in an unnatural way by surrounding the characters.

Structure analysis – take these sentences “Faster!” Cathy urged herself on. Her legs urged. Her lungs screamed. But She was gaining on them. She overtook one. Still faster!

  • The short sentences increase the pace in the same way ‘Cathy’s’ movements are rapid creating a sense of apprehension and excitement for the reader.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q3 In lines 14–25, how does the writer use language and structure to show the narrator’s
feelings about Bertha? Support your views with reference to the text.

Capture3

Reward responses that explain how the writer uses language and structure to show the narrator’s feelings about Bertha in lines 14-25. Responses may include the following points about the language of the text:

  • the narrator uses hyperbole and repetition to heighten his sense of loss: ‘a thousand charming scenes never to be renewed – never!’
  • he uses metaphor: ‘Serpents and adders were in my heart’ shows how negative his thoughts are about Bertha and her deceit
  • he uses critical language and negative adjectives to show his sense of hatred towards her: ‘False girl! – false and cruel!’; ‘Worthless, detested’
  • the description of how he seeks his ‘vengeance’ by wishing Albert would die or ‘expire at her feet’ shows his anger and extreme abhorrence at Bertha’s relationship with Albert
  • the description of Bertha’s contemptuousness and power over him illustrates his misery: ‘she knew my wretchedness’; ‘exciting my hate’ (juxtaposition)
  • the narrator feels ‘rejected love’ for Bertha but has to ignore his feelings of love and wishes to appear ‘indifferent’ to cope with her rejection: ‘regard her with careless eyes … that were indeed a victory!’
  • the metaphor of battle is used to apply to his emotions to succumb to a ‘victory’ and ‘triumph’
  • the use of questions to show his torment – ‘Yet what power had she?’ and exclamation marks throughout to show his anger and despair
  • the use of the personal pronoun ‘she’ rather than using her name shows his disdain and disgust for Bertha.

Responses may include the following points about the structure of the text:

  • the narrator uses repetition to show his despair and anger: ‘Never’; ‘False’
  • the section is structured to show the narrator’s range of feelings for Bertha
  • the use of connectives shows how the narrator’s torment is emphasised: ‘Serpents and adders’; ‘false and cruel’; ‘disdain and triumph’
  • the section is structured as all one paragraph which shows the pace of events as his torment unfolds
  • a variety of sentence types including rhetorical questions, exclamations, short sentences and the use of pauses in the form of dashes to show his spontaneous thinking.

Question 4 – Tests AO4 skills – Evaluate (15 marks)

This AO asks students to look at how well the writer presents ideas, events, themes and settings (rather than how they are presented). Students must put forward their own critical judgements about how well a text fulfils the requirements of type, form or purpose. Their comments must be supported with appropriate references to the text(s) and these may include content, language and/or structure analysis to support their positive or negative comments. The focus here is on the student’s ability to make a critical judgement of the type, form or purpose of a text and, where students refer to the writer’s techniques without making a judgement on a text, they will not be able to move up to the higher bands of the mark scheme. At the highest level, AO4 requires a sustained critical overview from the student and a level of critical distance.

Evaluate – take this extract from a piece of fiction

“It landed on the petrol and with a speed that took Sam’s breath away as the flame leapt up, blues, oranges and yellow filled the darkness, it was alive. He stood there for a moment watching the flame, mesmerised by its beauty as it grew. It spread along the floor as if by magic, moving effortlessly, almost gliding over the petrol.”

The flames are described as if they are alive. Evaluate how successfully the author has achieved this.

By using a third person point of view, the author’s choice allows the reader to see the flames from more than just the character’s perspective. The personification of the fire as it grows and ‘leaps’ around skilfully makes the flames appear exciting and fun almost like a friend to the character, not a dangerous enemy. The flames come alive with the listing of colours “blues, oranges and yellow” as the fire escalates.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q4) In this extract, there is an attempt to show how important it is to concentrate on
a task. Evaluate how successfully this is achieved. Support your views with detailed reference to the text

Reward responses that evaluate how successfully the purpose of conveying the importance of concentration is achieved. References to writer’s techniques should only be credited at Level 2 and above if they support the critical judgement of the
text.

Responses may include:

  • the opening idea of tiredness is introduced and developed as Cornelius has watched for three days and nights, showing a sense of exhaustion through concentrating on the liquid
  • the narrator’s clear explanation of Cornelius’s determination to carry out the task further suggests he has to use super-human strength to see the experiment through: ‘threw off drowsiness with more than human energy’
  • the writer shows the idea of self-determination; despite his exhaustion, Cornelius has to convince himself that it is vital he concentrates on monitoring the liquid
  • Cornelius shows how important it is to concentrate; he has to trust the narrator as he cannot concentrate any further: but he explains that the narrator has to concentrate and wake him up when the liquid changes colour
  • Cornelius gives a detailed explanation of changes in the liquid to show how critical precise timing is
  • the philosopher is so focused that he is unable to stop concentrating: even in sleep he gives the narrator further advice: ‘do not touch the vessel’, ‘beware to drink!’
  • the structure shows the consequences of failing to concentrate. The narrator takes the task on, briefly concentrating for ‘a few minutes’ before his ‘thoughts wandered’ to Bertha which shows the conflict between his job and his feelings for her
  • the language used shows that failure to concentrate can have destructive consequences: ‘destroyed the labour of my life’
  • structure is used effectively to contrast the theme of concentration on doing something (observing) and thinking about something (Bertha) and the effect of this contrast
  • the theme of the extract is explored very successfully as the reader is shown that concentration means different things
  • the narrator’s concentration is brought swiftly back following ‘A bright flash’, but instead of awakening Cornelius he concentrates on his own thoughts and feelings and decides to drink the liquid.

 

Section B – Imaginative Writing

(40 marks)

AO5: Composition and organisation – This AO is the first of the writing AOs. When assessing composition, the focus will be on an awareness of purpose and audience as well as the creation of style, tone and register.

● Organisation and structure focuses on content management in terms of constructing paragraphs as well as overall text cohesion.

AO6: Range of vocabulary and sentence structure, accurate spelling and punctuation – The focus is on the following areas:

● spelling – accuracy of spelling is the focus with an acknowledgement that this is
directly related to vocabulary used
● punctuation and grammar – the focus is on how the accuracy and complexity of
punctuation impacts on sentence structure.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

SECTION B: Imaginative Writing

Answer ONE question. You should spend about 45 minutes on this section. Write your answer in the space provided.

EITHER

 

Q5 Look at the images provided.

Write about a time when you, or someone you know, had to work hard on something.
Your response could be real or imagined. You may wish to base your response on one
of the images.
*Your response will be marked for the accurate and appropriate use of vocabulary,
spelling, punctuation and grammar.
(Total for Question 5 = 40 marks)

OR

Q6 Write about a time when you, or someone you know, did something without thinking
it through.

Your response could be real or imagined.
*Your response will be marked for the accurate and appropriate use of vocabulary,
spelling, punctuation and grammar.
(Total for Question 6 = 40 marks)

My (very) short story is based on *6* a time when I did something without thinking it through:

Pretending to be distracted by a non-existent item, I flick one foot over the other and ignore the clicking of the heels as they walk toward me. My eyes remain fixed on the square marble effect tiles with mottle green swirls.  I don’t look at the closed door in front of me; I don’t want to attract any attention. When the corridor becomes silent I glance sideways at the shiny laptop just sitting there on the desk. I could grab it and run or tip it onto the floor but I know any action will prove futile; my destiny had been set in stone when I’d hit “send”. 

I thought back to that day. The day it began…

Jealousy; that was the reason, I was jealous of her perfect face and her perfect hair and her perfect grades. She was popular with the boys and the girls. Everyone liked her, expect me and that was because more important than those small things; she was kind, and nice. Simply  I wanted to be her.

5* Purpose: to write a real or imagined piece about a time a person had to work hard on something. This may involve a range of approaches, including: description, anecdote, speech, narrative, literary techniques.

Audience: the writing is for a general readership. Candidates can choose to write for an adult audience or an audience of young people.

Form: the response may be narrative, descriptive or a monologue. There should be clear organisation and structure with an introduction, development of points and a conclusion. Some candidates may intentionally adapt their language and style to their audience by using, for example, a more informal or colloquial approach. Candidates may
introduce some literary elements.

Responses may:

  • use the images to inspire writing: a project for school, homework, a practical task like making something, working hard on a physical activity or working together as a team
  • give reasons why it was hard work and the impact on the person doing the work and others: what was achieved as a result of the hard work
  • use appropriate techniques for creative writing: vocabulary, imagery, language techniques
  • use a voice that attempts to make the piece interesting and believable to the chosen audience
  • demonstrate particular understanding of the form used
  • be written in a register and style appropriate for the chosen form, which may include colloquial elements, dialogue within description or narrative, a sustained single voice in monologue.

6* Purpose: to write a real or imagined piece about doing something without thinking it through. This may involve a range of approaches, including: description, anecdote, speech, literary techniques.

Audience: the writing is for a general readership. Candidates can choose to write for an adult audience or an audience of young people.

Form: the response may be narrative, descriptive or a monologue. There should be clear organisation and structure with an introduction, development of points and a conclusion. Some candidates may intentionally adapt their language and style to their audience by using, for example, a more informal or colloquial approach. Candidates may
introduce some literary elements.

Responses may:

  • use an example of doing something without thinking it through: this could be physical (an extreme sport or activity, an adventure, an expedition) or emotional (telling someone something, hiding something)
  • give reasons why the writer did it and whether the experience was positive or negative
  • talk about the impact the experience had on the writer and/or others
  • use appropriate techniques for creative writing: vocabulary, imagery, language techniques
  • use a voice that attempts to make the piece interesting and believable to the chosen audience
  • demonstrate particular understanding of the form used
  • be written in a register and style appropriate for the chosen form, which may include colloquial elements, dialogue within description or narrative, a sustained single voice in monologue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Your Emotional Vocabulary List

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

ANGER, APATHY, and HATRED

Soft Anger and Apathy

Annoyed ~ Apathetic ~ Bored ~ Certain ~ Cold ~ Crabby ~ Cranky ~ Critical ~ Cross ~ Detached ~ Displeased ~ Frustrated ~ Impatient ~ Indifferent ~ Irritated ~ Peeved ~ Rankled

Medium (or Mood-State) Anger

Affronted ~ Aggravated ~ Angry ~ Antagonized ~ Arrogant ~ Bristling ~ Exasperated ~ Incensed ~ Indignant ~ Inflamed ~ Mad ~ Offended ~ Resentful ~ Riled up ~ Sarcastic

Intense Anger and Hatred

Aggressive ~ Appalled ~ Belligerent ~ Bitter ~ Contemptuous ~ Disgusted ~ Furious ~ Hateful ~ Hostile ~ Irate ~ Livid ~ Menacing ~ Outraged ~ Ranting ~ Raving ~ Seething ~ Spiteful ~ Vengeful ~ Vicious ~ Vindictive ~ Violent

 

SHAME and GUILT

Soft Shame and Guilt

Abashed ~ Awkward ~ Discomfited ~ Flushed ~ Flustered ~ Hesitant ~ Humble ~ Reticent ~ Self-conscious ~ Speechless ~ Withdrawn

Medium (or Mood-State) Shame and Guilt

Ashamed ~ Chagrined ~ Contrite ~ Culpable ~ Embarrassed ~ Guilty ~ Humbled ~ Intimidated ~ Penitent ~ Regretful ~ Remorseful ~ Reproachful ~ Rueful ~ Sheepish

Intense Shame and Guilt

Belittled ~ Degraded ~ Demeaned ~ Disgraced ~ Guilt-ridden ~ Guilt-stricken ~ Humiliated ~ Mortified ~ Ostracized ~ Self-condemning ~ Self-flagellating ~ Shamefaced ~ Stigmatized

FEAR, ANXIETY and PANIC

Soft Fear and Anxiety

Alert ~ Apprehensive ~ Cautious ~ Concerned ~ Confused ~ Curious ~ Disconcerted ~ Disoriented ~ Disquieted ~ Doubtful ~ Edgy ~ Fidgety ~ Hesitant ~ Indecisive ~ Insecure ~ Instinctive ~ Intuitive ~  Leery ~ Pensive ~ Shy ~ Timid ~ Uneasy ~ Watchful

Medium (or Mood-State) Fear and Anxiety

Afraid ~ Alarmed ~ Anxious ~ Aversive ~ Distrustful ~ Fearful ~ Jumpy ~ Nervous ~ Perturbed ~ Rattled ~ Shaky ~ Startled ~ Suspicious ~ Unnerved ~ Unsettled ~ Wary ~ Worried

Intense Fear and Panic

Filled with Dread ~ Horrified ~ Panicked ~ Paralyzed ~ Petrified ~ Phobic ~ Shocked ~ Terrorized

 

JEALOUSY & ENVY

Soft Jealousy & Envy

Disbelieving ~ Distrustful ~ Insecure ~ Protective ~ Suspicious ~ Vulnerable

Medium (or Mood-State) Jealousy & Envy

Covetous ~ Demanding ~ Desirous ~ Envious ~ Jealous ~ Threatened

Intense Jealousy & Envy

Avaricious ~ Gluttonous ~ Grasping ~ Greedy ~ Green with Envy ~ Persistently Jealous ~ Possessive Resentful

 

HAPPINESS, CONTENTMENT, and JOY

Soft Happiness

Amused ~ Calm ~ Encouraged ~ Friendly ~ Hopeful ~ Inspired ~ Jovial ~ Open ~ Peaceful ~ Smiling – Upbeat

Medium (or Mood-State) Happiness and Contentment

Cheerful ~ Contented ~ Delighted ~ Excited ~ Fulfilled ~ Glad ~ Gleeful ~ Gratified ~ Happy ~ Healthy Self-esteem ~ Joyful ~ Lively ~ Merry ~ Optimistic ~ Playful ~ Pleased ~ Proud ~ Rejuvenated ~ Satisfied

Intense Happiness, Contentment, and Joy

Awe-filled ~ Blissful ~ Ecstatic ~ Egocentric ~ Elated ~ Enthralled ~ Euphoric ~ Exhilarated ~ Giddy ~ Jubilant ~ Manic ~ Overconfident ~ Overjoyed ~ Radiant ~ Rapturous ~ Self-aggrandized ~ Thrilled

 

SADNESS, GRIEF, and DEPRESSION

Soft Sadness

Contemplative ~ Disappointed ~ Disconnected ~ Distracted ~ Grounded ~ Listless ~ Low ~ Steady ~ Regretful ~ Wistful

Medium (or Mood-State) Sadness, Grief, and Depression

Dejected ~ Discouraged ~ Dispirited ~ Down ~ Downtrodden ~ Drained ~ Forlorn ~ Gloomy ~ Grieving ~ Heavy-hearted ~ Melancholy ~ Mournful ~ Sad ~ Sorrowful ~ Weepy ~ World-weary

Intense Sadness, Grief, and Depression

Anguished ~ Bereaved ~ Bleak ~ Depressed ~ Despairing ~ Despondent ~ Grief-stricken ~ Heartbroken ~ Hopeless ~ Inconsolable ~ Morose

 

DEPRESSION and SUICIDAL URGES

Soft Depression and Suicidal Urges

Apathetic ~ Constantly Irritated, Angry, or Enraged (see the Anger list above) ~ Depressed ~ Discouraged ~ Disinterested ~ Dispirited ~ Feeling Worthless ~ Flat ~ Helpless ~ Humorless ~ Impulsive ~ Indifferent ~ Isolated ~ Lethargic ~ Listless ~ Melancholy ~ Pessimistic ~ Purposeless ~ Withdrawn ~ World-weary

Medium (or Mood-State) Depression and Suicidal Urges

Bereft ~ Crushed ~ Desolate ~ Despairing ~ Desperate ~ Drained ~ Empty ~ Fatalistic ~ Hopeless ~ Joyless ~ Miserable ~ Morbid ~ Overwhelmed ~ Passionless ~ Pleasureless ~ Sullen

Intense Suicidal Urges

Agonized ~ Anguished ~ Bleak ~ Death-seeking ~ Devastated ~ Doomed ~ Gutted ~ Nihilistic ~ Numbed ~ Reckless ~ Self-destructive ~ Suicidal ~ Tormented ~ Tortured

 

Taken/copied from https://karlamclaren.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Emotional-Vocabulary-List-Color.pdf

Synonyms (& Antonyms)

List of Synonyms

  • Action
    • Come — advance, approach, arrive, near, reach
    • Go — depart, disappear, fade, move, proceed, recede, travel
    • Run — dash, escape, elope, flee, hasten, hurry, race, rush, speed, sprint
    • Hurry — rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle
    • Hide — conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
    • Move — plod, go, creep, crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk, traipse, mosey, jog, plug, trudge, slump, lumber, trail, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot, high-tail, streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, fling, scamper, scurry, skedaddle, scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, hump, gallop, lope, accelerate, stir, budge, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, spin, slip, glide, slide, slither, coast, flow, sail, saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, paddle, slouch, prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle, wobble, pace, swagger, promenade, lunge
    • Do — execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
    • Have — hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, believe, bear, beget, occupy, absorb, fill, enjoy
    • Use — employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
    • Get — acquire, obtain, secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, score, accumulate, win, earn, rep, catch, net, bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by, regain, salvage
    • Keep — hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
    • Put — place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do, build
    • Take — hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire, pick, choose, select, prefer, remove, steal, lift, rob, engage, bewitch, purchase, buy, retract, recall, assume, occupy, consume
    • Make — create, originate, invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate, manufacture, produce, build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform, accomplish, earn, gain, obtain, acquire, get
    • Break — fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish, atomize
    • Destroy — ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
    • Kill — slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, cancel, abolish
    • Cut — gash, slash, prick, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop, reduce
    • Fall — drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
    • Fly — soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
    • Decide — determine, settle, choose, resolve
    • Help — aid, assist, support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve, succor, benefit, befriend, abet
    • Mark — label, tag, price, ticket, impress, effect, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign, note, heed, notice, designate
    • Plan — plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure, arrangement, intention, device, contrivance, method, way, blueprint
    • Show — display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove, demonstrate, expose
  • Antonyms
    • Begin — start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
    • End — stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance, cease, halt, stay, pause, discontinue, conclude, finish, quit
    • Big — large, enormous, huge, immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, sizable, grand, great, tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive, spacious, stout, tremendous, titanic, mountainous
    • Little — small, tiny, diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky, cramped, limited, itsy-bitsy, microscopic, slight, petite, minute
    • New — fresh, unique, original, unusual, novel, modern, current, recent
    • Old — feeble, frail, ancient, weak, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded, broken-down, former, old-fashioned, outmoded, passe, veteran, mature, venerable, primitive, traditional, archaic, conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete, extinct
    • False — wrong, fake, fraudulent, counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous, deceptive, groundless, fallacious, incorrect, inaccurate, mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable
    • True — right, accurate, proper, precise, exact, valid, genuine, real, actual, trusty, steady, loyal, dependable, sincere, staunch, correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral, proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
    • Fast — quick, rapid, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly, quickly, snappily, speedily, lickety-split, posthaste, hastily, expeditiously, like a flash
    • Slow — unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, slack
    • Cool — chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
    • Hot — feverish, warm, heated, sweltering, torrid, equatorial, tropical, erotic, passionate, spicy, peppery, pungent, sharp tangy, tart, fiery, flaming, sizzling, charged, burning, seared, chafed´, inflamed, irritated, red, smarting, stinging
    • Quiet — silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful, hushed, inaudible
      reticent, reserved, taciturn, secretive, uncommunicative, tightlipped
    • Noisy — loudly, earsplitting, stentorian, strident, clamorous, boisterous, clangorous, deafening, roisterous, uproarious, pandemoniac
    • All — complete, entire, full, gross, outright, perfect, total, utter, whole, any, complete, every, sum, totality, each and every, every bit of, bar none, every single, everything, everyone
    • None — nothing, nobody, no one, zero, zilch, no one at all, no part, not a bit, not a soul, not a thing, not any, not anyone, not anything, not one, nonexistent, null
      nadir, nil, naught, void, nada, blank, nix
    • Normal — daily, traditional, familiar, routine, proper, ordinary, typical, everyday, usual, commonplace, natural, classic, standard, general, bona fide, established, habitual, orthodox, prevalent, run-of-the-mill, time-honored, unvarying, average, conventional, customary, common, regular, garden-variety, household, plain, simple, balanced
    • Strange — abnormal, aberrant, anomalous, bent, bizarre, deviant, queer, eccentric, freakish, fanatical, odd, eerie, peculiar, weird, unorthodox, nonstandard, atypical, different, irregular, nonconforming, offbeat, unusual, extraordinary, insane, irrational, disorderly, rare, exceptional, extreme, outlandish
  • Descriptive
    • Describe — portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report, record
    • Difference — disagreement, inequity, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
    • Explain — elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
    • Idea — thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view, belief
    • Look — gaze, see, glance, watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep, glimpse, stare, contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold, observe, view, witness, perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye, gawk, peruse, explore
    • Story — tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, sage, anecdote, record, memoir
    • Tell — disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate, narrate, inform, advise, explain, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
    • Think — judge, deem, assume, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, mediate
  • Feelings
    • Anger — enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
    • Angry — mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused, inflamed
    • Calm — quiet, peaceful, still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected, unruffled, level-headed, unexcited, detached, aloof
    • Eager — keen, fervent, enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
    • Fear — fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, scare, awe, horror, panic, apprehension
    • Happy — pleased, contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic, jubilant, gay, tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
    • Hate — despise, loathe, detest, abhor, disfavor, dislike, disapprove, abominate
    • Love — like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship, appreciate, savor
    • Moody — temperamental, changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen, mopish, irritable, testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
    • Sad — miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heart-broken, unfortunate, poor, downhearted, sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal, discouraged, unhappy
    • Scared — afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked, fearful, unnerved, insecure, timid, shy, skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed, horrified, terrorized, shocked, petrified, haunted, timorous, shrinking, tremulous, stupefied, paralyzed, stunned, apprehensive
  • Negative
    • Awful — dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
    • Bad — evil, immoral, wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated, spoiled, tainted, harmful, injurious, unfavorable, defective, inferior, imperfect, substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate, unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant, cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous, scandalous, infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous, nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly, execrable
    • Crooked — bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
    • Dangerous — perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
    • Dark — shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal, sad
    • Dull — boring, tiring,, tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative, lifeless, dead, insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain, monotonous, humdrum, dreary
    • Fat — stout, corpulent, fleshy, beefy, paunchy, plump, full, rotund, tubby, pudgy, chubby, chunky, burly, bulky, elephantine
    • Gross — improper, rude, coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme, grievous, shameful, uncouth, obscene, low
    • Hurt — damage, harm, injure, wound, distress, afflict, pain
    • Lazy — indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
    • Predicament — quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, spot, scrape, jam
    • Trouble — distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness, pain, danger, peril, disaster, grief, misfortune, difficulty, concern, pains, inconvenience, exertion, effort
    • Ugly — hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible, unpleasant, monstrous, terrifying, gross, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, evil, repulsive, repugnant, gruesome
  • Positive
    • Amazing — incredible, unbelievable, improbable, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic, astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
    • Beautiful — pretty, lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid, magnificent, comely, fair, ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic, pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning, glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant, glowing, blooming, sparkling
    • Brave — courageous, fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous, audacious, bold, gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
    • Bright — shining, shiny, gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid, colorful, lustrous, luminous, incandescent, intelligent, knowing, quick-witted, smart, intellectual
    • Delicious — savory, delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable, delightful, enjoyable, toothsome, exquisite
    • Enjoy — appreciate, delight in, be pleased, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in, relish, devour, savor, like
    • Famous — well-known, renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious, distinguished, noted, notorious
    • Funny — humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
    • Good — excellent, fine, superior, wonderful, marvelous, qualified, suited, suitable, apt, proper, capable, generous, kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant, agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved, obedient, honorable, reliable, trustworthy, safe, favorable, profitable, advantageous, righteous, expedient, helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great, noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, sterling, superb, respectable, edifying
    • Great — noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable, powerful, much, mighty
    • Mischievous — prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
    • Neat — clean, orderly, tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, well-organized, super, desirable, spruce, shipshape, well-kept, shapely
    • Popular — well-liked, approved, accepted, favorite, celebrated, common, current
  • Talk / Speech
    • Answer — reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
    • Ask — question, inquire of, seek information from, put a question to, demand, request, expect, inquire, query, interrogate, examine, quiz
    • Cry — shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
    • Say/Tell — inform, notify, advise, relate, recount, narrate, explain, reveal, disclose, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, enlighten, instruct, insist, teach, train, direct, issue, remark, converse, speak, affirm, suppose, utter, negate, express, verbalize, voice, articulate, pronounce, deliver, convey, impart, assert, state, allege, mutter, mumble, whisper, sigh, exclaim, yell, sing, yelp, snarl, hiss, grunt, snort, roar, bellow, thunder, boom, scream, shriek, screech, squawk, whine, philosophize, stammer, stutter, lisp, drawl, jabber, protest, announce, swear, vow, content, assure, deny, dispute
    • Mean (Something) — add up to, affect, be important, be of value, be substantive, carry weight, connote, count, denote, express, imply, intend, involve, signify, spell, stand for, suggest, value, weigh in,
  • Unsorted
    • Somewhat — a little, sort of, kind of, a bit, relatively, slightly, moderately, to some extent / degree , reasonably, partially, more or less, not much
      rather, quite, fairly, by a long shot, by far, rather, significantly, well
    • Somehow — in a way, virtually, to a certain extent, in some measure, to some extent, to a certain degree, quasi , in a manner of speaking, effectively
      anyhow, anyway, anywise, by hook or by crook, another, howsoever, in any way, somehow or other, someway, by some means
    • Definite — certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
    • Fair — just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
    • Important — necessary, vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential, significant, primary, principal, considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-known
    • Interesting — fascinating, engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated, spirited, attractive, inviting, intriguing, provocative, thought-provoking, challenging, inspiring, involving, moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant, lively, racy, spicy, engrossing, absorbing, consuming, gripping, arresting, enthralling, spellbinding, curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
    • Part — portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
    • Place — space, area, spot, plot, region, location, situation, position, residence, dwelling, set, site, station, status, state

 

This has been copied/taken from: http://www.smart-words.org/list-of-synonyms/

Homophones

This is a list of common homophones.

1. accessary, accessory 111. dew, due
2. ad, add 112. die, dye
3. ail, ale 113. discreet, discrete
4. air, heir 114. doe, doh, dough
5. aisle, I’ll, isle 115. done, dun
6. all, awl 116. douse, dowse
7. allowed, aloud 117. draft, draught
8. alms, arms 118. dual, duel
9. altar, alter 119. earn, urn
10. arc, ark 120. eery, eyrie
11. aren’t, aunt 121. ewe, yew, you
12. ate, eight 122. faint, feint
13. auger, augur 123. fah, far
14. auk, orc 124. fair, fare
15. aural, oral 125. farther, father
16. away, aweigh 126. fate, fête
17. awe, oar, or, ore 127. faun, fawn
18. axel, axle 128. fay, fey
19. aye, eye, I 129. faze, phase
20. bail, bale 130. feat, feet
21. bait, bate 131. ferrule, ferule
22. baize, bays 132. few, phew
23. bald, bawled 133. fie, phi
24. ball, bawl 134. file, phial
25. band, banned 135. find, fined
26. bard, barred 136. fir, fur
27. bare, bear 137. fizz, phiz
28. bark, barque 138. flair, flare
29. baron, barren 139. flaw, floor
30. base, bass 140. flea, flee
31. bay, bey 141. flex, flecks
32. bazaar, bizarre 142. flew, flu, flue
33. be, bee 143. floe, flow
34. beach, beech 144. flour, flower
35. bean, been 145. foaled, fold
36. beat, beet 146. for, fore, four
37. beau, bow 147. foreword, forward
38. beer, bier 148. fort, fought
39. bel, bell, belle 149. forth, fourth
40. berry, bury 150. foul, fowl
41. berth, birth 151. franc, frank
42. bight, bite, byte 152. freeze, frieze
43. billed, build 153. friar, fryer
44. bitten, bittern 154. furs, furze
45. blew, blue 155. gait, gate
46. bloc, block 156. galipot, gallipot
47. boar, bore 157. gallop, galop
48. board, bored 158. gamble, gambol
49. boarder, border 159. gays, gaze
50. bold, bowled 160. genes, jeans
51. boos, booze 161. gild, guild
52. born, borne 162. gilt, guilt
53. bough, bow 163. giro, gyro
54. boy, buoy 164. gnaw, nor
55. brae, bray 165. gneiss, nice
56. braid, brayed 166. gorilla, guerilla
57. braise, brays, braze 167. grate, great
58. brake, break 168. greave, grieve
59. bread, bred 169. greys, graze
60. brews, bruise 170. grisly, grizzly
61. bridal, bridle 171. groan, grown
62. broach, brooch 172. guessed, guest
63. bur, burr 173. hail, hale
64. but, butt 174. hair, hare
65. buy, by, bye 175. hall, haul
66. buyer, byre 176. hangar, hanger
67. calendar, calender 177. hart, heart
68. call, caul 178. haw, hoar, whore
69. canvas, canvass 179. hay, hey
70. cast, caste 180. heal, heel, he’ll
71. caster, castor 181. hear, here
72. caught, court 182. heard, herd
73. caw, core, corps 183. he’d, heed
74. cede, seed 184. heroin, heroine
75. ceiling, sealing 185. hew, hue
76. cell, sell 186. hi, high
77. censer, censor, sensor 187. higher, hire
78. cent, scent, sent 188. him, hymn
79. cereal, serial 189. ho, hoe
80. cheap, cheep 190. hoard, horde
81. check, cheque 191. hoarse, horse
82. choir, quire 192. holey, holy, wholly
83. chord, cord 193. hour, our
84. cite, sight, site 194. idle, idol
85. clack, claque 195. in, inn
86. clew, clue 196. indict, indite
87. climb, clime 197. it’s, its
88. close, cloze 198. jewel, joule
89. coal, kohl 199. key, quay
90. coarse, course 200. knave, nave
91. coign, coin 201. knead, need
92. colonel, kernel 202. knew, new
93. complacent, complaisant 203. knight, night
94. complement, compliment 204. knit, nit
95. coo, coup 205. knob, nob
96. cops, copse 206. knock, nock
97. council, counsel 207. knot, not
98. cousin, cozen 208. know, no
99. creak, creek 209. knows, nose
100. crews, cruise 210. laager, lager
101. cue, kyu, queue 211. lac, lack
102. curb, kerb 212. lade, laid
103. currant, current 213. lain, lane
104. cymbol, symbol 214. lam, lamb
105. dam, damn 215. laps, lapse
106. days, daze 216. larva, lava
107. dear, deer 217. lase, laze
108. descent, dissent 218. law, lore
109. desert, dessert 219. lay, ley
110. deviser, divisor 220. lea, lee
221. leach, leech 331. rouse, rows
222. lead, led 332. rung, wrung
223. leak, leek 333. rye, wry
224. lean, lien 334. saver, savour
225. lessen, lesson 335. spade, spayed
226. levee, levy 336. sale, sail
227. liar, lyre 337. sane, seine
228. licence, license 338. satire, satyr
229. licker, liquor 339. sauce, source
230. lie, lye 340. saw, soar, sore
231. lieu, loo 341. scene, seen
232. links, lynx 342. scull, skull
233. lo, low 343. sea, see
234. load, lode 344. seam, seem
235. loan, lone 345. sear, seer, sere
236. locks, lox 346. seas, sees, seize
237. loop, loupe 347. sew, so, sow
238. loot, lute 348. shake, sheikh
239. made, maid 349. shear, sheer
240. mail, male 350. shoe, shoo
241. main, mane 351. sic, sick
242. maize, maze 352. side, sighed
243. mall, maul 353. sign, sine
244. manna, manner 354. sink, synch
245. mantel, mantle 355. slay, sleigh
246. mare, mayor 356. sloe, slow
247. mark, marque 357. sole, soul
248. marshal, martial 358. some, sum
249. marten, martin 359. son, sun
250. mask, masque 360. sort, sought
251. maw, more 361. spa, spar
252. me, mi 362. staid, stayed
253. mean, mien 363. stair, stare
254. meat, meet, mete 364. stake, steak
255. medal, meddle 365. stalk, stork
256. metal, mettle 366. stationary, stationery
257. meter, metre 367. steal, steel
258. might, mite 368. stile, style
259. miner, minor, mynah 369. storey, story
260. mind, mined 370. straight, strait
261. missed, mist 371. sweet, suite
262. moat, mote 372. swat, swot
263. mode, mowed 373. tacks, tax
264. moor, more 374. tale, tail
265. moose, mousse 375. talk, torque
266. morning, mourning 376. tare, tear
267. muscle, mussel 377. taught, taut, tort
268. naval, navel 378. te, tea, tee
269. nay, neigh 379. team, teem
270. nigh, nye 380. tear, tier
271. none, nun 381. teas, tease
272. od, odd 382. terce, terse
273. ode, owed 383. tern, turn
274. oh, owe 384. there, their, they’re
275. one, won 385. threw, through
276. packed, pact 386. throes, throws
277. packs, pax 387. throne, thrown
278. pail, pale 388. thyme, time
279. pain, pane 389. tic, tick
280. pair, pare, pear 390. tide, tied
281. palate, palette, pallet 391. tire, tyre
282. pascal, paschal 392. to, too, two
283. paten, patten, pattern 393. toad, toed, towed
284. pause, paws, pores, pours 394. told, tolled
285. pawn, porn 395. tole, toll
286. pea, pee 396. ton, tun
287. peace, piece 397. tor, tore
288. peak, peek, peke, pique 398. tough, tuff
289. peal, peel 399. troop, troupe
290. pearl, purl 400. tuba, tuber
291. pedal, peddle 401. vain, vane, vein
292. peer, pier 402. vale, veil
293. pi, pie 403. vial, vile
294. pica, pika 404. wail, wale, whale
295. place, plaice 405. wain, wane
296. plain, plane 406. waist, waste
297. pleas, please 407. wait, weight
298. plum, plumb 408. waive, wave
299. pole, poll 409. wall, waul
300. poof, pouffe 410. war, wore
301. practice, practise 411. ware, wear, where
302. praise, prays, preys 412. warn, worn
303. principal, principle 413. wart, wort
304. profit, prophet 414. watt, what
305. quarts, quartz 415. wax, whacks
306. quean, queen 416. way, weigh, whey
307. rain, reign, rein 417. we, wee, whee
308. raise, rays, raze 418. weak, week
309. rap, wrap 419. we’d, weed
310. raw, roar 420. weal, we’ll, wheel
311. read, reed 421. wean, ween
312. read, red 422. weather, whether
313. real, reel 423. weaver, weever
314. reek, wreak 424. weir, we’re
315. rest, wrest 425. were, whirr
316. retch, wretch 426. wet, whet
317. review, revue 427. wheald, wheeled
318. rheum, room 428. which, witch
319. right, rite, wright, write 429. whig, wig
320. ring, wring 430. while, wile
321. road, rode 431. whine, wine
322. roe, row 432. whirl, whorl
323. role, roll 433. whirled, world
324. roo, roux, rue 434. whit, wit
325. rood, rude 435. white, wight
326. root, route 436. who’s, whose
327. rose, rows 437. woe, whoa
328. rota, rotor 438. wood, would
329. rote, wrote 439. yaw, yore, your, you’re
330. rough, ruff 440. yoke, yolk
441. you’ll, yule

 

Tone Words

300 Words To Describe An Author’s Tone

What is tone?

Tone refers to an author’s use of words and writing style to convey his or her attitude
towards a topic. Tone is often defined as what the author feels or their attitude toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject.

What the reader feels is the mood.

Tone = Attitude. Voice = Personality.

Tone      Meaning
Abashed ashamed or embarrassed;
Absurd illogical; ridiculous; silly; implausible; foolish
accusatory charging of wrong doing
Accusatory suggesting someone has done something wrong, complaining
Acerbic sharp; forthright; biting; hurtful; abrasive; severe
Admiring approving; think highly of; respectful; praising
Affectionate  showing, indicating, or
Aggressive hostile; determined; forceful; argumentative
Aggrieved indignant; annoyed; offended; disgruntled
Ambiguous  open tor having several
Ambivalent  uncertainty or fluctuation, esp.
Ambivalent having mixed feelings; uncertain; in a dilemma; undecided
Amused  pleasurably entertained, occupied,
Amused entertained; diverted; pleased
Angry incensed or enraged; threatening or menacing
Animated full of life or excitement; lively; spirited; impassioned; vibrant
Annoyed  Tcause slight irritation to
Antagonistic  acting in opposition; opposing,
Anxious  full of mental distress or uneasiness
Apathetic  having or showing little or no
apathetic indifferent due to lack of energy or concern
Apathetic showing little interest; lacking concern; indifferent; unemotional
Apologetic  containing an apology or excuse
Apologetic full of regret; repentant; remorseful; acknowledging failure
Appreciative  feeling or expressive of
Appreciative grateful; thankful; showing pleasure; enthusiastic
Apprehensive  uneasy or fearful about
Approving  tspeak or think favorably of;
Ardent  characterized by intense feeling;
Ardent enthusiastic; passionate
Arrogant  making claims or pretensions to
Arrogant pompous; disdainful; overbearing; condescending; vain; scoffing
Assertive self-confident; strong-willed; authoritative; insistent
Audacious  extremely bold or daring;
Authoritarian  having an air of authority;
awe solemn wonder
Awestruck amazed, filled with wonder/awe; reverential
Baffled  tconfuse, bewilder, or perplex
Bantering  Good-humored, playful
Belligerent  warlike; given twaging war
Belligerent hostile; aggressive; combatant
Bemused  bewildered or confused/ lost in
Benevolent  characterized by or expressing
Benevolent sympathetic; tolerant; generous; caring; well meaning
Bewildered  completely puzzled or confused;
bhorring  tregard with extreme
Biting  nipping; smarting; keen/ cutting;
Bitter  having a harsh, disagreeably acrid
Bitter angry; acrimonious; antagonistic; spiteful; nasty
bitter exhibiting strong animosity as a result of pain or grief
Blithe  joyous, merry, or gay in disposition;
Blunt  abrupt in address or manner/ slow in
Bold  not hesitating or fearful in the face of
Brisk  quick and active; lively/ sharp and
Brusque  abrupt in manner; blunt; rough
bstruse  difficult tunderstand
bsurd  ridiculous; silly
Burlesque  an artistic composition, esp.
Callous cruel disregard; unfeeling; uncaring; indifferent; ruthless
callous unfeeling, insensitive to feelings of others
Calm  without rough motion; still or nearly
Candid  frank; outspoken; open and sincere/
Candid truthful, straightforward; honest; unreserved
Capricious  flighty; led by whims; erratic
Casual  without definite or serious intention;
Caustic  making biting, corrosive comments
caustic intense use of sarcasm; stinging, biting
Caustic making biting, corrosive comments; critical
Cautionary gives warning; raises awareness; reminding
ccusing  tcharge with the fault, offense, or
Celebratory  seeming or tending tbe
Celebratory praising; pay tribute to; glorify; honour
Censorious  severely critical; faultfinding
cerbic  harsh or severe, as of temper or
Ceremonial  of, pertaining to, or
Chatty informal; lively; conversational; familiar
Cheerful  characterized by or expressive of
Cheery  in good spirits
Choleric  extremely irritable or easily
choleric hot tempered, easily angered
Clinical  concerned with or based on actual
Colloquial  characteristic of or appropriate
Colloquial familiar; everyday language; informal; colloquial; casual
Comforting  Tsoothe in time of affliction or
Comic humorous; witty; entertaining; diverting
Commanding  appreciably superior or
Compassionate  having or showing
Compassionate sympathetic; empathetic; warm-hearted; tolerant; kind
Complex  characterized by a very
Complex having many varying characteristics; complicated
Compliant agree or obey rules; acquiescent; flexible; submissive
Complicated  composed of elaborately
Complimentary  of the nature of, conveying,
Conceited  having an excessively favorable
Concerned  interested or affected/ troubled
Concerned worried; anxious; apprehensive
Conciliatory  Tovercome the distrust or
Conciliatory intended tplacate or pacify; appeasing
Condemnatory  Texpress strong
Condescending  showing or implying a
Condescending stooping tthe level of one’s inferiors; patronising
condescension; condescending a feeling of superiority
Confident  having strong belief or full
Confused  tperplex or bewilder/ tmake
Confused unable tthink clearly; bewildered; vague
contemplative studying, thinking, reflecting on an issue
Contemptuous  showing or expressing
Contemptuous showing contempt; scornful; insolent; mocking
contemptuous showing or feeling that something is worthless or lacks respect
Contented  Desiring nmore than what one
Contentious  tending targument or strife;
conventional lacking spontaneity, originality, and individuality
Conversational  The spoken exchange of
Critical  inclined tfind fault or tjudge with
critical finding fault
Critical finding fault; disapproving; scathing; criticizing
Cruel causing pain and suffering; unkind; spiteful; severe
Curious wanting tfind out more; inquisitive; questioning
Curt  rudely brief in speech or abrupt in
Cynical  scornful of the motives or virtues of
cynical questions the basic sincerity and goodness of people
Cynical scornful of motives/virtues of others; mocking; sneering
Defensive defending a position; shielding; guarding; watchful
Defiant obstinate; argumentative; defiant; contentious
Demanding  requiring or claiming more than
Demeaning disrespectful; undignified
Depressed  sad and gloomy; dejected;
Depressing sad, melancholic; discouraging; pessimistic
Derisive  characterized by or expressing
derisive ridiculing, mocking
Derisive snide; sarcastic; mocking; dismissive; scornful
Despairing  Tbe overcome by a sense of
Desperate  reckless or dangerous because of
Detached  impartial or objective;
Detached aloof; objective; unfeeling; distant
Diabolic  having the qualities of a devil;
Didactic  intended for instruction; instructive
didactic author attempts to educate or instruct the reader
Diffident  lacking confidence in one’s own
Dignified serious; respectful; formal; proper
Diplomatic tactful; subtle; sensitive; thoughtful
Direct  proceeding in a straight line or by the
Direct straightforward; honest
Disappointed  depressed or discouraged by
Disappointed discouraged; unhappy because something has gone wrong
Disapproving displeased; critical; condemnatory
Disbelieving  thave nbelief in; refuse or
Disdainful  expressing extreme contempt
disdainful scornful
Disgusted  Texcite nausea or loathing in;
Disheartening discouraging; demoralising; undermining; depressing
Disparaging dismissive; critical; scornful
Dispassionate impartial; indifferent; unsentimental; cold; unsympathetic
Disrespectful  Having or exhibiting a lack of
Distressing heart-breaking; sad; troubling
Disturbed  marked by symptoms of mental
dmiring  tregard with wonder, pleasure,
dmonishing  cautioning, advising, or
Docile compliant; submissive; deferential; accommodating
Dogmatic  asserting opinions in a doctrinaire
Domineering  overbearing; tyrannical
doring  tregard with the utmost esteem,
Doubtful  of uncertain outcome or result
Dramatic  of or pertaining tthe drama/
Dreary  causing sadness or gloom./ dull;
Dubious  wavering or hesitating in
Earnest  serious in intention, purpose, or
earnest intense, a sincere state of mind
Earnest showing deep sincerity or feeling; serious
Ebullient  overflowing with fervor,
Ecstatic  subject tor in a state of
Effusive  unduly demonstrative; lacking
Egotistical  given ttalking about
Egotistical self-absorbed; selfish; conceited; boastful
Elated  very happy or proud; jubilant; in
Elegiac  expressing sorrow or
Elevated  exalted or noble; lofty/ exalted
Eloquent  having or exercising the power
Embarrassed  Tcause tfeel selfconscious
Empathetic  showing empathy or ready
Empathetic understanding; kind; sensitive
Encouraging  tinspire with courage,
Encouraging optimistic; supportive
Enthusiastic  having or showing great
Enthusiastic excited; energetic
Erudite  characterized by great knowledge;
erudite learned, polished, scholarly
Eulogistic  Tpraise highly in speech or
Euphoric  a feeling of happiness,
Evasive  deliberately vague or
Evasive ambiguous; cryptic; unclear
Excited emotionally aroused; stirred
Exhilarated  tenliven; invigorate;
Exhortatory  advising, urging, or
Expectant  marked by eager anticipation
Exuberant  effusively and almost
Facetious  not meant tbe taken seriously
Facetious inappropriate; flippant
Factual  of or pertaining tfacts;
Familiar  commonly or generally known
Fanciful  characterized by or showing
fanciful using the imagination
Farcical  ludicrous; absurd; mocking;
Farcical ludicrous; absurd; mocking; humorous and highly improbable
Fatalistic  the acceptance of all things
Fearful  feeling fear, dread,
Fervent  having or showing great warmth
Flippant  frivolously disrespectful,
Flippant superficial; glib; shallow; thoughtless; frivolous
Forceful  powerful
Forceful powerful; energetic; confident; assertive
Foreboding  a strong inner feeling or
Formal  stiff; using textbook style;
Formal respectful; stilted; factual; following accepted styles/rules
Forthright  going straight tthe point;
forthright directly frank without hesitation
Frank honest; direct; plain; matter-of-fact
Frantic  desperate or wild with
Frightened  Tfill with fear; alarm
Frivolous  characterized by lack of
Frustrated  disappointed; thwarted
Frustrated annoyed; discouraged
Furious  full of fury, violent passion, or
Gentle  kind; considerate; mild; soft
Gentle kind; considerate; mild; soft
Ghoulish  strangely diabolical or cruel;
Ghoulish delighting in the revolting or the loathsome
Giddy  frivolous and lighthearted;
gloomy darkness, sadness, rejection
Grim serious; gloomy; depressing; lacking humour;macabre
Gullible naïve; innocent; ignorant
Hard unfeeling; hard-hearted; unyielding
haughty proud and vain to the point of arrogance
Humble deferential; modest
Humorous amusing; entertaining; playful
Hypercritical unreasonably critical; hair splitting; nitpicking
Impartial unbiased; neutral; objective
Impassioned filled with emotion; ardent
Imploring pleading; begging
Impressionable trusting; child-like
Inane silly; foolish; stupid; nonsensical
Incensed enraged
Incredulous disbelieving; unconvinced; questioning; suspicious
Indignant annoyed; angry; dissatisfied
indignant marked by anger aroused by injustice
Informative instructive; factual; educational
Inspirational encouraging; reassuring
Intense earnest; passionate; concentrated; deeply felt
Intimate familiar; informal; confidential; confessional
intimate very familiar
Ironic the opposite of what is meant
Irreverent lacking respect for things that are generally taken seriously
Jaded bored; having had tomuch of the same thing; lack enthusiasm
jovial happy
Joyful positive; optimistic; cheerful; elated
judgmental authoritative and often having critical opinions
Judgmental critical; finding fault; disparaging
Laudatory praising; recommending
Light-Hearted carefree; relaxed; chatty; humorous
Loving affectionate; showing intense, deep concern
lyrical expressing a poet’s inner feelings; emotional; full of images; song
Macabre gruesome; horrifying; frightening
Malicious desiring tharm others or tsee others suffer; ill-willed; spiteful
malicious purposely hurtful
matter of fact accepting of conditions
Mean-Spirited inconsiderate; unsympathetic
Mocking scornful; ridiculing; making fun of someone
mocking treating with contempt or ridicule
morose gloomy, sullen, surly, despondent
Mourning grieving; lamenting; woeful
Naïve innocent; unsophisticated; immature
Narcissistic self-admiring; selfish; boastful; self-pitying
Nasty unpleasant; unkind; disagreeable; abusive
Negative unhappy, pessimistic
Nostalgic thinking about the past; wishing for something from the past
objective an unbiased view
Objective without prejudice; without discrimination; fair; based on fact
Obsequious overly obedient and/or submissive; fawning; grovelling
obsequious polite and obedient in order to gain something
optimistic hopeful, cheerful
Optimistic hopeful; cheerful
Outraged angered and resentful; furious; extremely angered
Outspoken frank; candid; spoken without reserve
Pathetic expressing pity, sympathy, tenderness
Patronising condescending; scornful; pompous
patronizing air of condescension
Pensive reflective; introspective; philosophical; contemplative
Persuasive convincing; eloquent; influential; plausible
Pessimistic seeing the negative side of things
pessimistic seeing the worst side of things; no hope
Philosophical theoretical; analytical; rational; logical
Playful full of fun and good spirits; humorous; jesting
Pragmatic realistic; sensible
Pretentious affected; artificial; grandiose; rhetorical; flashy
quizzical odd, eccentric, amusing
reflective illustrating innermost thoughts and emotions
Regretful apologetic; remorseful
Resentful aggrieved; offended; displeased; bitter
Resigned accepting; unhappy
Restrained controlled; quiet; unemotional
Reverent showing deep respect and esteem
reverent treating a subject with honor and respect
ribald offensive in speech or gesture
ridiculing slightly contemptuous banter; making fun of
Righteous morally right and just; guiltless; pious; god-fearing
sanguineous optimistic, cheerful
Sarcastic scornful; mocking; ridiculing
sarcastic sneering, caustic
sardonic scornfully and bitterly sarcastic
satiric ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point, teach
Satirical making fun tshow a weakness; ridiculing; derisive
Scathing critical; stinging; unsparing; harsh
Sceptical disbelieving; unconvinced; doubting
Scornful expressing contempt or derision; scathing; dismissive
Sensationalistic provocative; inaccurate; distasteful
Sentimental thinking about feelings, especially when remembering the past
Sincere honest; truthful; earnest
sincere without deceit or pretense; genuine
solemn deeply earnest, tending toward sad reflection
Solemn not funny; in earnest; serious
Subjective prejudiced; biased
Submissive compliant; passive; accommodating; obedient
Sulking bad-tempered; grumpy; resentful; sullen
Sympathetic compassionate; understanding of how someone feels
Thoughtful reflective; serious; absorbed
Tolerant open-minded; charitable; patient; sympathetic; lenient
Tragic disastrous; calamitous
Unassuming modest; self-effacing; restrained
Uneasy worried; uncomfortable; edgy; nervous
Urgent insistent; saying something must be done soon
Vindictive vengeful; spiteful; bitter; unforgiving
Virtuous lawful; righteous; moral; upstanding
whimsical odd, strange, fantastic; fun
Whimsical quaint; playful; mischievous; offbeat
Witty clever; quick-witted; entertaining
Wonder awe-struck; admiring; fascinating
World-Weary bored; cynical; tired
Worried anxious; stressed; fearful
Wretched miserable; despairing; sorrowful; distressed


The mechanics of tone
Tone is conveyed through diction (choice and use of words and phrases), viewpoint, syntax (grammar; how you put words and phrases together), and level of formality. It is the way you express yourself in speech or writing.


How do you find the correct tone?
You can usually find a tone by asking these three questions:

1. Why am I writing this?
2. Who is my intended audience?
3. What do I want the reader to learn, understand, or think about?

Informal writing, your tone should be clear, concise, confident, and courteous. The writing level should be sophisticated, but not pretentious.

In creative writing, your tone is more subjective, but you should always aim to
communicate clearly.

Genre sometimes determines the tone.