Synonyms (& Antonyms)

List of Synonyms

  • Action
    • Come — advance, approach, arrive, near, reach
    • Go — depart, disappear, fade, move, proceed, recede, travel
    • Run — dash, escape, elope, flee, hasten, hurry, race, rush, speed, sprint
    • Hurry — rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle
    • Hide — conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
    • Move — plod, go, creep, crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk, traipse, mosey, jog, plug, trudge, slump, lumber, trail, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot, high-tail, streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, fling, scamper, scurry, skedaddle, scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, hump, gallop, lope, accelerate, stir, budge, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, spin, slip, glide, slide, slither, coast, flow, sail, saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, paddle, slouch, prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle, wobble, pace, swagger, promenade, lunge
    • Do — execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
    • Have — hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, believe, bear, beget, occupy, absorb, fill, enjoy
    • Use — employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
    • Get — acquire, obtain, secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, score, accumulate, win, earn, rep, catch, net, bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by, regain, salvage
    • Keep — hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
    • Put — place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do, build
    • Take — hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire, pick, choose, select, prefer, remove, steal, lift, rob, engage, bewitch, purchase, buy, retract, recall, assume, occupy, consume
    • Make — create, originate, invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate, manufacture, produce, build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform, accomplish, earn, gain, obtain, acquire, get
    • Break — fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish, atomize
    • Destroy — ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
    • Kill — slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, cancel, abolish
    • Cut — gash, slash, prick, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop, reduce
    • Fall — drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
    • Fly — soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
    • Decide — determine, settle, choose, resolve
    • Help — aid, assist, support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve, succor, benefit, befriend, abet
    • Mark — label, tag, price, ticket, impress, effect, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign, note, heed, notice, designate
    • Plan — plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure, arrangement, intention, device, contrivance, method, way, blueprint
    • Show — display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove, demonstrate, expose
  • Antonyms
    • Begin — start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
    • End — stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance, cease, halt, stay, pause, discontinue, conclude, finish, quit
    • Big — large, enormous, huge, immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, sizable, grand, great, tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive, spacious, stout, tremendous, titanic, mountainous
    • Little — small, tiny, diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky, cramped, limited, itsy-bitsy, microscopic, slight, petite, minute
    • New — fresh, unique, original, unusual, novel, modern, current, recent
    • Old — feeble, frail, ancient, weak, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded, broken-down, former, old-fashioned, outmoded, passe, veteran, mature, venerable, primitive, traditional, archaic, conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete, extinct
    • False — wrong, fake, fraudulent, counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous, deceptive, groundless, fallacious, incorrect, inaccurate, mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable
    • True — right, accurate, proper, precise, exact, valid, genuine, real, actual, trusty, steady, loyal, dependable, sincere, staunch, correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral, proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
    • Fast — quick, rapid, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly, quickly, snappily, speedily, lickety-split, posthaste, hastily, expeditiously, like a flash
    • Slow — unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, slack
    • Cool — chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
    • Hot — feverish, warm, heated, sweltering, torrid, equatorial, tropical, erotic, passionate, spicy, peppery, pungent, sharp tangy, tart, fiery, flaming, sizzling, charged, burning, seared, chafed´, inflamed, irritated, red, smarting, stinging
    • Quiet — silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful, hushed, inaudible
      reticent, reserved, taciturn, secretive, uncommunicative, tightlipped
    • Noisy — loudly, earsplitting, stentorian, strident, clamorous, boisterous, clangorous, deafening, roisterous, uproarious, pandemoniac
    • All — complete, entire, full, gross, outright, perfect, total, utter, whole, any, complete, every, sum, totality, each and every, every bit of, bar none, every single, everything, everyone
    • None — nothing, nobody, no one, zero, zilch, no one at all, no part, not a bit, not a soul, not a thing, not any, not anyone, not anything, not one, nonexistent, null
      nadir, nil, naught, void, nada, blank, nix
    • Normal — daily, traditional, familiar, routine, proper, ordinary, typical, everyday, usual, commonplace, natural, classic, standard, general, bona fide, established, habitual, orthodox, prevalent, run-of-the-mill, time-honored, unvarying, average, conventional, customary, common, regular, garden-variety, household, plain, simple, balanced
    • Strange — abnormal, aberrant, anomalous, bent, bizarre, deviant, queer, eccentric, freakish, fanatical, odd, eerie, peculiar, weird, unorthodox, nonstandard, atypical, different, irregular, nonconforming, offbeat, unusual, extraordinary, insane, irrational, disorderly, rare, exceptional, extreme, outlandish
  • Descriptive
    • Describe — portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report, record
    • Difference — disagreement, inequity, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
    • Explain — elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
    • Idea — thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view, belief
    • Look — gaze, see, glance, watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep, glimpse, stare, contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold, observe, view, witness, perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye, gawk, peruse, explore
    • Story — tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, sage, anecdote, record, memoir
    • Tell — disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate, narrate, inform, advise, explain, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
    • Think — judge, deem, assume, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, mediate
  • Feelings
    • Anger — enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
    • Angry — mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused, inflamed
    • Calm — quiet, peaceful, still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected, unruffled, level-headed, unexcited, detached, aloof
    • Eager — keen, fervent, enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
    • Fear — fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, scare, awe, horror, panic, apprehension
    • Happy — pleased, contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic, jubilant, gay, tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
    • Hate — despise, loathe, detest, abhor, disfavor, dislike, disapprove, abominate
    • Love — like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship, appreciate, savor
    • Moody — temperamental, changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen, mopish, irritable, testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
    • Sad — miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heart-broken, unfortunate, poor, downhearted, sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal, discouraged, unhappy
    • Scared — afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked, fearful, unnerved, insecure, timid, shy, skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed, horrified, terrorized, shocked, petrified, haunted, timorous, shrinking, tremulous, stupefied, paralyzed, stunned, apprehensive
  • Negative
    • Awful — dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
    • Bad — evil, immoral, wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated, spoiled, tainted, harmful, injurious, unfavorable, defective, inferior, imperfect, substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate, unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant, cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous, scandalous, infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous, nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly, execrable
    • Crooked — bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
    • Dangerous — perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
    • Dark — shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal, sad
    • Dull — boring, tiring,, tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative, lifeless, dead, insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain, monotonous, humdrum, dreary
    • Fat — stout, corpulent, fleshy, beefy, paunchy, plump, full, rotund, tubby, pudgy, chubby, chunky, burly, bulky, elephantine
    • Gross — improper, rude, coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme, grievous, shameful, uncouth, obscene, low
    • Hurt — damage, harm, injure, wound, distress, afflict, pain
    • Lazy — indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
    • Predicament — quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, spot, scrape, jam
    • Trouble — distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness, pain, danger, peril, disaster, grief, misfortune, difficulty, concern, pains, inconvenience, exertion, effort
    • Ugly — hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible, unpleasant, monstrous, terrifying, gross, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, evil, repulsive, repugnant, gruesome
  • Positive
    • Amazing — incredible, unbelievable, improbable, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic, astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
    • Beautiful — pretty, lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid, magnificent, comely, fair, ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic, pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning, glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant, glowing, blooming, sparkling
    • Brave — courageous, fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous, audacious, bold, gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
    • Bright — shining, shiny, gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid, colorful, lustrous, luminous, incandescent, intelligent, knowing, quick-witted, smart, intellectual
    • Delicious — savory, delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable, delightful, enjoyable, toothsome, exquisite
    • Enjoy — appreciate, delight in, be pleased, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in, relish, devour, savor, like
    • Famous — well-known, renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious, distinguished, noted, notorious
    • Funny — humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
    • Good — excellent, fine, superior, wonderful, marvelous, qualified, suited, suitable, apt, proper, capable, generous, kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant, agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved, obedient, honorable, reliable, trustworthy, safe, favorable, profitable, advantageous, righteous, expedient, helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great, noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, sterling, superb, respectable, edifying
    • Great — noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable, powerful, much, mighty
    • Mischievous — prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
    • Neat — clean, orderly, tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, well-organized, super, desirable, spruce, shipshape, well-kept, shapely
    • Popular — well-liked, approved, accepted, favorite, celebrated, common, current
  • Talk / Speech
    • Answer — reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
    • Ask — question, inquire of, seek information from, put a question to, demand, request, expect, inquire, query, interrogate, examine, quiz
    • Cry — shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
    • Say/Tell — inform, notify, advise, relate, recount, narrate, explain, reveal, disclose, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, enlighten, instruct, insist, teach, train, direct, issue, remark, converse, speak, affirm, suppose, utter, negate, express, verbalize, voice, articulate, pronounce, deliver, convey, impart, assert, state, allege, mutter, mumble, whisper, sigh, exclaim, yell, sing, yelp, snarl, hiss, grunt, snort, roar, bellow, thunder, boom, scream, shriek, screech, squawk, whine, philosophize, stammer, stutter, lisp, drawl, jabber, protest, announce, swear, vow, content, assure, deny, dispute
    • Mean (Something) — add up to, affect, be important, be of value, be substantive, carry weight, connote, count, denote, express, imply, intend, involve, signify, spell, stand for, suggest, value, weigh in,
  • Unsorted
    • Somewhat — a little, sort of, kind of, a bit, relatively, slightly, moderately, to some extent / degree , reasonably, partially, more or less, not much
      rather, quite, fairly, by a long shot, by far, rather, significantly, well
    • Somehow — in a way, virtually, to a certain extent, in some measure, to some extent, to a certain degree, quasi , in a manner of speaking, effectively
      anyhow, anyway, anywise, by hook or by crook, another, howsoever, in any way, somehow or other, someway, by some means
    • Definite — certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
    • Fair — just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
    • Important — necessary, vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential, significant, primary, principal, considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-known
    • Interesting — fascinating, engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated, spirited, attractive, inviting, intriguing, provocative, thought-provoking, challenging, inspiring, involving, moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant, lively, racy, spicy, engrossing, absorbing, consuming, gripping, arresting, enthralling, spellbinding, curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
    • Part — portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
    • Place — space, area, spot, plot, region, location, situation, position, residence, dwelling, set, site, station, status, state


This has been copied/taken from:



This is a list of common homophones.

1. accessary, accessory 111. dew, due
2. ad, add 112. die, dye
3. ail, ale 113. discreet, discrete
4. air, heir 114. doe, doh, dough
5. aisle, I’ll, isle 115. done, dun
6. all, awl 116. douse, dowse
7. allowed, aloud 117. draft, draught
8. alms, arms 118. dual, duel
9. altar, alter 119. earn, urn
10. arc, ark 120. eery, eyrie
11. aren’t, aunt 121. ewe, yew, you
12. ate, eight 122. faint, feint
13. auger, augur 123. fah, far
14. auk, orc 124. fair, fare
15. aural, oral 125. farther, father
16. away, aweigh 126. fate, fête
17. awe, oar, or, ore 127. faun, fawn
18. axel, axle 128. fay, fey
19. aye, eye, I 129. faze, phase
20. bail, bale 130. feat, feet
21. bait, bate 131. ferrule, ferule
22. baize, bays 132. few, phew
23. bald, bawled 133. fie, phi
24. ball, bawl 134. file, phial
25. band, banned 135. find, fined
26. bard, barred 136. fir, fur
27. bare, bear 137. fizz, phiz
28. bark, barque 138. flair, flare
29. baron, barren 139. flaw, floor
30. base, bass 140. flea, flee
31. bay, bey 141. flex, flecks
32. bazaar, bizarre 142. flew, flu, flue
33. be, bee 143. floe, flow
34. beach, beech 144. flour, flower
35. bean, been 145. foaled, fold
36. beat, beet 146. for, fore, four
37. beau, bow 147. foreword, forward
38. beer, bier 148. fort, fought
39. bel, bell, belle 149. forth, fourth
40. berry, bury 150. foul, fowl
41. berth, birth 151. franc, frank
42. bight, bite, byte 152. freeze, frieze
43. billed, build 153. friar, fryer
44. bitten, bittern 154. furs, furze
45. blew, blue 155. gait, gate
46. bloc, block 156. galipot, gallipot
47. boar, bore 157. gallop, galop
48. board, bored 158. gamble, gambol
49. boarder, border 159. gays, gaze
50. bold, bowled 160. genes, jeans
51. boos, booze 161. gild, guild
52. born, borne 162. gilt, guilt
53. bough, bow 163. giro, gyro
54. boy, buoy 164. gnaw, nor
55. brae, bray 165. gneiss, nice
56. braid, brayed 166. gorilla, guerilla
57. braise, brays, braze 167. grate, great
58. brake, break 168. greave, grieve
59. bread, bred 169. greys, graze
60. brews, bruise 170. grisly, grizzly
61. bridal, bridle 171. groan, grown
62. broach, brooch 172. guessed, guest
63. bur, burr 173. hail, hale
64. but, butt 174. hair, hare
65. buy, by, bye 175. hall, haul
66. buyer, byre 176. hangar, hanger
67. calendar, calender 177. hart, heart
68. call, caul 178. haw, hoar, whore
69. canvas, canvass 179. hay, hey
70. cast, caste 180. heal, heel, he’ll
71. caster, castor 181. hear, here
72. caught, court 182. heard, herd
73. caw, core, corps 183. he’d, heed
74. cede, seed 184. heroin, heroine
75. ceiling, sealing 185. hew, hue
76. cell, sell 186. hi, high
77. censer, censor, sensor 187. higher, hire
78. cent, scent, sent 188. him, hymn
79. cereal, serial 189. ho, hoe
80. cheap, cheep 190. hoard, horde
81. check, cheque 191. hoarse, horse
82. choir, quire 192. holey, holy, wholly
83. chord, cord 193. hour, our
84. cite, sight, site 194. idle, idol
85. clack, claque 195. in, inn
86. clew, clue 196. indict, indite
87. climb, clime 197. it’s, its
88. close, cloze 198. jewel, joule
89. coal, kohl 199. key, quay
90. coarse, course 200. knave, nave
91. coign, coin 201. knead, need
92. colonel, kernel 202. knew, new
93. complacent, complaisant 203. knight, night
94. complement, compliment 204. knit, nit
95. coo, coup 205. knob, nob
96. cops, copse 206. knock, nock
97. council, counsel 207. knot, not
98. cousin, cozen 208. know, no
99. creak, creek 209. knows, nose
100. crews, cruise 210. laager, lager
101. cue, kyu, queue 211. lac, lack
102. curb, kerb 212. lade, laid
103. currant, current 213. lain, lane
104. cymbol, symbol 214. lam, lamb
105. dam, damn 215. laps, lapse
106. days, daze 216. larva, lava
107. dear, deer 217. lase, laze
108. descent, dissent 218. law, lore
109. desert, dessert 219. lay, ley
110. deviser, divisor 220. lea, lee
221. leach, leech 331. rouse, rows
222. lead, led 332. rung, wrung
223. leak, leek 333. rye, wry
224. lean, lien 334. saver, savour
225. lessen, lesson 335. spade, spayed
226. levee, levy 336. sale, sail
227. liar, lyre 337. sane, seine
228. licence, license 338. satire, satyr
229. licker, liquor 339. sauce, source
230. lie, lye 340. saw, soar, sore
231. lieu, loo 341. scene, seen
232. links, lynx 342. scull, skull
233. lo, low 343. sea, see
234. load, lode 344. seam, seem
235. loan, lone 345. sear, seer, sere
236. locks, lox 346. seas, sees, seize
237. loop, loupe 347. sew, so, sow
238. loot, lute 348. shake, sheikh
239. made, maid 349. shear, sheer
240. mail, male 350. shoe, shoo
241. main, mane 351. sic, sick
242. maize, maze 352. side, sighed
243. mall, maul 353. sign, sine
244. manna, manner 354. sink, synch
245. mantel, mantle 355. slay, sleigh
246. mare, mayor 356. sloe, slow
247. mark, marque 357. sole, soul
248. marshal, martial 358. some, sum
249. marten, martin 359. son, sun
250. mask, masque 360. sort, sought
251. maw, more 361. spa, spar
252. me, mi 362. staid, stayed
253. mean, mien 363. stair, stare
254. meat, meet, mete 364. stake, steak
255. medal, meddle 365. stalk, stork
256. metal, mettle 366. stationary, stationery
257. meter, metre 367. steal, steel
258. might, mite 368. stile, style
259. miner, minor, mynah 369. storey, story
260. mind, mined 370. straight, strait
261. missed, mist 371. sweet, suite
262. moat, mote 372. swat, swot
263. mode, mowed 373. tacks, tax
264. moor, more 374. tale, tail
265. moose, mousse 375. talk, torque
266. morning, mourning 376. tare, tear
267. muscle, mussel 377. taught, taut, tort
268. naval, navel 378. te, tea, tee
269. nay, neigh 379. team, teem
270. nigh, nye 380. tear, tier
271. none, nun 381. teas, tease
272. od, odd 382. terce, terse
273. ode, owed 383. tern, turn
274. oh, owe 384. there, their, they’re
275. one, won 385. threw, through
276. packed, pact 386. throes, throws
277. packs, pax 387. throne, thrown
278. pail, pale 388. thyme, time
279. pain, pane 389. tic, tick
280. pair, pare, pear 390. tide, tied
281. palate, palette, pallet 391. tire, tyre
282. pascal, paschal 392. to, too, two
283. paten, patten, pattern 393. toad, toed, towed
284. pause, paws, pores, pours 394. told, tolled
285. pawn, porn 395. tole, toll
286. pea, pee 396. ton, tun
287. peace, piece 397. tor, tore
288. peak, peek, peke, pique 398. tough, tuff
289. peal, peel 399. troop, troupe
290. pearl, purl 400. tuba, tuber
291. pedal, peddle 401. vain, vane, vein
292. peer, pier 402. vale, veil
293. pi, pie 403. vial, vile
294. pica, pika 404. wail, wale, whale
295. place, plaice 405. wain, wane
296. plain, plane 406. waist, waste
297. pleas, please 407. wait, weight
298. plum, plumb 408. waive, wave
299. pole, poll 409. wall, waul
300. poof, pouffe 410. war, wore
301. practice, practise 411. ware, wear, where
302. praise, prays, preys 412. warn, worn
303. principal, principle 413. wart, wort
304. profit, prophet 414. watt, what
305. quarts, quartz 415. wax, whacks
306. quean, queen 416. way, weigh, whey
307. rain, reign, rein 417. we, wee, whee
308. raise, rays, raze 418. weak, week
309. rap, wrap 419. we’d, weed
310. raw, roar 420. weal, we’ll, wheel
311. read, reed 421. wean, ween
312. read, red 422. weather, whether
313. real, reel 423. weaver, weever
314. reek, wreak 424. weir, we’re
315. rest, wrest 425. were, whirr
316. retch, wretch 426. wet, whet
317. review, revue 427. wheald, wheeled
318. rheum, room 428. which, witch
319. right, rite, wright, write 429. whig, wig
320. ring, wring 430. while, wile
321. road, rode 431. whine, wine
322. roe, row 432. whirl, whorl
323. role, roll 433. whirled, world
324. roo, roux, rue 434. whit, wit
325. rood, rude 435. white, wight
326. root, route 436. who’s, whose
327. rose, rows 437. woe, whoa
328. rota, rotor 438. wood, would
329. rote, wrote 439. yaw, yore, your, you’re
330. rough, ruff 440. yoke, yolk
441. you’ll, yule


Tone Words

300 Words To Describe An Author’s Tone

What is tone?

Tone refers to an author’s use of words and writing style to convey his or her attitude
towards a topic. Tone is often defined as what the author feels or their attitude toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject.

What the reader feels is the mood.

Tone = Attitude. Voice = Personality.

Tone      Meaning
Abashed ashamed or embarrassed;
Absurd illogical; ridiculous; silly; implausible; foolish
accusatory charging of wrong doing
Accusatory suggesting someone has done something wrong, complaining
Acerbic sharp; forthright; biting; hurtful; abrasive; severe
Admiring approving; think highly of; respectful; praising
Affectionate  showing, indicating, or
Aggressive hostile; determined; forceful; argumentative
Aggrieved indignant; annoyed; offended; disgruntled
Ambiguous  open tor having several
Ambivalent  uncertainty or fluctuation, esp.
Ambivalent having mixed feelings; uncertain; in a dilemma; undecided
Amused  pleasurably entertained, occupied,
Amused entertained; diverted; pleased
Angry incensed or enraged; threatening or menacing
Animated full of life or excitement; lively; spirited; impassioned; vibrant
Annoyed  Tcause slight irritation to
Antagonistic  acting in opposition; opposing,
Anxious  full of mental distress or uneasiness
Apathetic  having or showing little or no
apathetic indifferent due to lack of energy or concern
Apathetic showing little interest; lacking concern; indifferent; unemotional
Apologetic  containing an apology or excuse
Apologetic full of regret; repentant; remorseful; acknowledging failure
Appreciative  feeling or expressive of
Appreciative grateful; thankful; showing pleasure; enthusiastic
Apprehensive  uneasy or fearful about
Approving  tspeak or think favorably of;
Ardent  characterized by intense feeling;
Ardent enthusiastic; passionate
Arrogant  making claims or pretensions to
Arrogant pompous; disdainful; overbearing; condescending; vain; scoffing
Assertive self-confident; strong-willed; authoritative; insistent
Audacious  extremely bold or daring;
Authoritarian  having an air of authority;
awe solemn wonder
Awestruck amazed, filled with wonder/awe; reverential
Baffled  tconfuse, bewilder, or perplex
Bantering  Good-humored, playful
Belligerent  warlike; given twaging war
Belligerent hostile; aggressive; combatant
Bemused  bewildered or confused/ lost in
Benevolent  characterized by or expressing
Benevolent sympathetic; tolerant; generous; caring; well meaning
Bewildered  completely puzzled or confused;
bhorring  tregard with extreme
Biting  nipping; smarting; keen/ cutting;
Bitter  having a harsh, disagreeably acrid
Bitter angry; acrimonious; antagonistic; spiteful; nasty
bitter exhibiting strong animosity as a result of pain or grief
Blithe  joyous, merry, or gay in disposition;
Blunt  abrupt in address or manner/ slow in
Bold  not hesitating or fearful in the face of
Brisk  quick and active; lively/ sharp and
Brusque  abrupt in manner; blunt; rough
bstruse  difficult tunderstand
bsurd  ridiculous; silly
Burlesque  an artistic composition, esp.
Callous cruel disregard; unfeeling; uncaring; indifferent; ruthless
callous unfeeling, insensitive to feelings of others
Calm  without rough motion; still or nearly
Candid  frank; outspoken; open and sincere/
Candid truthful, straightforward; honest; unreserved
Capricious  flighty; led by whims; erratic
Casual  without definite or serious intention;
Caustic  making biting, corrosive comments
caustic intense use of sarcasm; stinging, biting
Caustic making biting, corrosive comments; critical
Cautionary gives warning; raises awareness; reminding
ccusing  tcharge with the fault, offense, or
Celebratory  seeming or tending tbe
Celebratory praising; pay tribute to; glorify; honour
Censorious  severely critical; faultfinding
cerbic  harsh or severe, as of temper or
Ceremonial  of, pertaining to, or
Chatty informal; lively; conversational; familiar
Cheerful  characterized by or expressive of
Cheery  in good spirits
Choleric  extremely irritable or easily
choleric hot tempered, easily angered
Clinical  concerned with or based on actual
Colloquial  characteristic of or appropriate
Colloquial familiar; everyday language; informal; colloquial; casual
Comforting  Tsoothe in time of affliction or
Comic humorous; witty; entertaining; diverting
Commanding  appreciably superior or
Compassionate  having or showing
Compassionate sympathetic; empathetic; warm-hearted; tolerant; kind
Complex  characterized by a very
Complex having many varying characteristics; complicated
Compliant agree or obey rules; acquiescent; flexible; submissive
Complicated  composed of elaborately
Complimentary  of the nature of, conveying,
Conceited  having an excessively favorable
Concerned  interested or affected/ troubled
Concerned worried; anxious; apprehensive
Conciliatory  Tovercome the distrust or
Conciliatory intended tplacate or pacify; appeasing
Condemnatory  Texpress strong
Condescending  showing or implying a
Condescending stooping tthe level of one’s inferiors; patronising
condescension; condescending a feeling of superiority
Confident  having strong belief or full
Confused  tperplex or bewilder/ tmake
Confused unable tthink clearly; bewildered; vague
contemplative studying, thinking, reflecting on an issue
Contemptuous  showing or expressing
Contemptuous showing contempt; scornful; insolent; mocking
contemptuous showing or feeling that something is worthless or lacks respect
Contented  Desiring nmore than what one
Contentious  tending targument or strife;
conventional lacking spontaneity, originality, and individuality
Conversational  The spoken exchange of
Critical  inclined tfind fault or tjudge with
critical finding fault
Critical finding fault; disapproving; scathing; criticizing
Cruel causing pain and suffering; unkind; spiteful; severe
Curious wanting tfind out more; inquisitive; questioning
Curt  rudely brief in speech or abrupt in
Cynical  scornful of the motives or virtues of
cynical questions the basic sincerity and goodness of people
Cynical scornful of motives/virtues of others; mocking; sneering
Defensive defending a position; shielding; guarding; watchful
Defiant obstinate; argumentative; defiant; contentious
Demanding  requiring or claiming more than
Demeaning disrespectful; undignified
Depressed  sad and gloomy; dejected;
Depressing sad, melancholic; discouraging; pessimistic
Derisive  characterized by or expressing
derisive ridiculing, mocking
Derisive snide; sarcastic; mocking; dismissive; scornful
Despairing  Tbe overcome by a sense of
Desperate  reckless or dangerous because of
Detached  impartial or objective;
Detached aloof; objective; unfeeling; distant
Diabolic  having the qualities of a devil;
Didactic  intended for instruction; instructive
didactic author attempts to educate or instruct the reader
Diffident  lacking confidence in one’s own
Dignified serious; respectful; formal; proper
Diplomatic tactful; subtle; sensitive; thoughtful
Direct  proceeding in a straight line or by the
Direct straightforward; honest
Disappointed  depressed or discouraged by
Disappointed discouraged; unhappy because something has gone wrong
Disapproving displeased; critical; condemnatory
Disbelieving  thave nbelief in; refuse or
Disdainful  expressing extreme contempt
disdainful scornful
Disgusted  Texcite nausea or loathing in;
Disheartening discouraging; demoralising; undermining; depressing
Disparaging dismissive; critical; scornful
Dispassionate impartial; indifferent; unsentimental; cold; unsympathetic
Disrespectful  Having or exhibiting a lack of
Distressing heart-breaking; sad; troubling
Disturbed  marked by symptoms of mental
dmiring  tregard with wonder, pleasure,
dmonishing  cautioning, advising, or
Docile compliant; submissive; deferential; accommodating
Dogmatic  asserting opinions in a doctrinaire
Domineering  overbearing; tyrannical
doring  tregard with the utmost esteem,
Doubtful  of uncertain outcome or result
Dramatic  of or pertaining tthe drama/
Dreary  causing sadness or gloom./ dull;
Dubious  wavering or hesitating in
Earnest  serious in intention, purpose, or
earnest intense, a sincere state of mind
Earnest showing deep sincerity or feeling; serious
Ebullient  overflowing with fervor,
Ecstatic  subject tor in a state of
Effusive  unduly demonstrative; lacking
Egotistical  given ttalking about
Egotistical self-absorbed; selfish; conceited; boastful
Elated  very happy or proud; jubilant; in
Elegiac  expressing sorrow or
Elevated  exalted or noble; lofty/ exalted
Eloquent  having or exercising the power
Embarrassed  Tcause tfeel selfconscious
Empathetic  showing empathy or ready
Empathetic understanding; kind; sensitive
Encouraging  tinspire with courage,
Encouraging optimistic; supportive
Enthusiastic  having or showing great
Enthusiastic excited; energetic
Erudite  characterized by great knowledge;
erudite learned, polished, scholarly
Eulogistic  Tpraise highly in speech or
Euphoric  a feeling of happiness,
Evasive  deliberately vague or
Evasive ambiguous; cryptic; unclear
Excited emotionally aroused; stirred
Exhilarated  tenliven; invigorate;
Exhortatory  advising, urging, or
Expectant  marked by eager anticipation
Exuberant  effusively and almost
Facetious  not meant tbe taken seriously
Facetious inappropriate; flippant
Factual  of or pertaining tfacts;
Familiar  commonly or generally known
Fanciful  characterized by or showing
fanciful using the imagination
Farcical  ludicrous; absurd; mocking;
Farcical ludicrous; absurd; mocking; humorous and highly improbable
Fatalistic  the acceptance of all things
Fearful  feeling fear, dread,
Fervent  having or showing great warmth
Flippant  frivolously disrespectful,
Flippant superficial; glib; shallow; thoughtless; frivolous
Forceful  powerful
Forceful powerful; energetic; confident; assertive
Foreboding  a strong inner feeling or
Formal  stiff; using textbook style;
Formal respectful; stilted; factual; following accepted styles/rules
Forthright  going straight tthe point;
forthright directly frank without hesitation
Frank honest; direct; plain; matter-of-fact
Frantic  desperate or wild with
Frightened  Tfill with fear; alarm
Frivolous  characterized by lack of
Frustrated  disappointed; thwarted
Frustrated annoyed; discouraged
Furious  full of fury, violent passion, or
Gentle  kind; considerate; mild; soft
Gentle kind; considerate; mild; soft
Ghoulish  strangely diabolical or cruel;
Ghoulish delighting in the revolting or the loathsome
Giddy  frivolous and lighthearted;
gloomy darkness, sadness, rejection
Grim serious; gloomy; depressing; lacking humour;macabre
Gullible naïve; innocent; ignorant
Hard unfeeling; hard-hearted; unyielding
haughty proud and vain to the point of arrogance
Humble deferential; modest
Humorous amusing; entertaining; playful
Hypercritical unreasonably critical; hair splitting; nitpicking
Impartial unbiased; neutral; objective
Impassioned filled with emotion; ardent
Imploring pleading; begging
Impressionable trusting; child-like
Inane silly; foolish; stupid; nonsensical
Incensed enraged
Incredulous disbelieving; unconvinced; questioning; suspicious
Indignant annoyed; angry; dissatisfied
indignant marked by anger aroused by injustice
Informative instructive; factual; educational
Inspirational encouraging; reassuring
Intense earnest; passionate; concentrated; deeply felt
Intimate familiar; informal; confidential; confessional
intimate very familiar
Ironic the opposite of what is meant
Irreverent lacking respect for things that are generally taken seriously
Jaded bored; having had tomuch of the same thing; lack enthusiasm
jovial happy
Joyful positive; optimistic; cheerful; elated
judgmental authoritative and often having critical opinions
Judgmental critical; finding fault; disparaging
Laudatory praising; recommending
Light-Hearted carefree; relaxed; chatty; humorous
Loving affectionate; showing intense, deep concern
lyrical expressing a poet’s inner feelings; emotional; full of images; song
Macabre gruesome; horrifying; frightening
Malicious desiring tharm others or tsee others suffer; ill-willed; spiteful
malicious purposely hurtful
matter of fact accepting of conditions
Mean-Spirited inconsiderate; unsympathetic
Mocking scornful; ridiculing; making fun of someone
mocking treating with contempt or ridicule
morose gloomy, sullen, surly, despondent
Mourning grieving; lamenting; woeful
Naïve innocent; unsophisticated; immature
Narcissistic self-admiring; selfish; boastful; self-pitying
Nasty unpleasant; unkind; disagreeable; abusive
Negative unhappy, pessimistic
Nostalgic thinking about the past; wishing for something from the past
objective an unbiased view
Objective without prejudice; without discrimination; fair; based on fact
Obsequious overly obedient and/or submissive; fawning; grovelling
obsequious polite and obedient in order to gain something
optimistic hopeful, cheerful
Optimistic hopeful; cheerful
Outraged angered and resentful; furious; extremely angered
Outspoken frank; candid; spoken without reserve
Pathetic expressing pity, sympathy, tenderness
Patronising condescending; scornful; pompous
patronizing air of condescension
Pensive reflective; introspective; philosophical; contemplative
Persuasive convincing; eloquent; influential; plausible
Pessimistic seeing the negative side of things
pessimistic seeing the worst side of things; no hope
Philosophical theoretical; analytical; rational; logical
Playful full of fun and good spirits; humorous; jesting
Pragmatic realistic; sensible
Pretentious affected; artificial; grandiose; rhetorical; flashy
quizzical odd, eccentric, amusing
reflective illustrating innermost thoughts and emotions
Regretful apologetic; remorseful
Resentful aggrieved; offended; displeased; bitter
Resigned accepting; unhappy
Restrained controlled; quiet; unemotional
Reverent showing deep respect and esteem
reverent treating a subject with honor and respect
ribald offensive in speech or gesture
ridiculing slightly contemptuous banter; making fun of
Righteous morally right and just; guiltless; pious; god-fearing
sanguineous optimistic, cheerful
Sarcastic scornful; mocking; ridiculing
sarcastic sneering, caustic
sardonic scornfully and bitterly sarcastic
satiric ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point, teach
Satirical making fun tshow a weakness; ridiculing; derisive
Scathing critical; stinging; unsparing; harsh
Sceptical disbelieving; unconvinced; doubting
Scornful expressing contempt or derision; scathing; dismissive
Sensationalistic provocative; inaccurate; distasteful
Sentimental thinking about feelings, especially when remembering the past
Sincere honest; truthful; earnest
sincere without deceit or pretense; genuine
solemn deeply earnest, tending toward sad reflection
Solemn not funny; in earnest; serious
Subjective prejudiced; biased
Submissive compliant; passive; accommodating; obedient
Sulking bad-tempered; grumpy; resentful; sullen
Sympathetic compassionate; understanding of how someone feels
Thoughtful reflective; serious; absorbed
Tolerant open-minded; charitable; patient; sympathetic; lenient
Tragic disastrous; calamitous
Unassuming modest; self-effacing; restrained
Uneasy worried; uncomfortable; edgy; nervous
Urgent insistent; saying something must be done soon
Vindictive vengeful; spiteful; bitter; unforgiving
Virtuous lawful; righteous; moral; upstanding
whimsical odd, strange, fantastic; fun
Whimsical quaint; playful; mischievous; offbeat
Witty clever; quick-witted; entertaining
Wonder awe-struck; admiring; fascinating
World-Weary bored; cynical; tired
Worried anxious; stressed; fearful
Wretched miserable; despairing; sorrowful; distressed

The mechanics of tone
Tone is conveyed through diction (choice and use of words and phrases), viewpoint, syntax (grammar; how you put words and phrases together), and level of formality. It is the way you express yourself in speech or writing.

How do you find the correct tone?
You can usually find a tone by asking these three questions:

1. Why am I writing this?
2. Who is my intended audience?
3. What do I want the reader to learn, understand, or think about?

Informal writing, your tone should be clear, concise, confident, and courteous. The writing level should be sophisticated, but not pretentious.

In creative writing, your tone is more subjective, but you should always aim to
communicate clearly.

Genre sometimes determines the tone.


Evaluation language

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

AQA Paper 1 – Question 4 requires you to evaluate an extract. This means at the top band/level your exam board wants you to:

Shows perceptive and detailed evaluation:

  • Evaluates critically and in detail the effect(s) on the reader
  • Shows perceptive understanding of writer’s methods
  • Selects a judicious range of textual detail
  • Develops a convincing and critical response to the focus of the statement

This means you will need to use the following language:

Evaluative words and phrases


  • Effective.
  • Successful.
  • Clear.
  • Skilful.
  • Convincing.
  • Engaging.
  • Thought-provoking.

e.g. “The poet’s skilful use of metaphor…”


  • Effectively.
  • Successfully.
  • Clearly.
  • Skilfully.
  • Convincingly.

e.g. “The author clearly illustrates that…”


  • Conveys.
  • Suggests.
  • Emphasises.
  • Demonstrates.
  • Illustrates.
  • Makes it clear.
  • Makes it apparent.
  • Allows the reader/audience to understand…

e.g. “The playwright’s effective use of dialogue successfully demonstrates how…

Further evaluative language:

  • Inspiring
  • Perceptive
  • Powerful
  • Striking
  • Reflective
  • Imaginative
  • Profound
  • Challenging
  • Perplexing
  • Comprehensive
  • Valuable
  • Relevant
  • Thorough

Eg “The author challenges ….”


Thank you for reading!

“All The Critics Love U In New York”

It’s time 4 a new direction

Prince – All The Critics Love U In New York – 1999


On Tuesday 17th October my amazing Headteacher sent me to CamSTAR* Conference 2017.  I picked two sessions that put me out of my comfort zone:

  1. From ‘LOTS’ to ‘HOTS’ – Scaffolding students to higher order thinking skills and better outcomes. Emma Wilkinson, Director of Studies/History teacher, CATS Canterbury; and Louisa Horner, T&L Coordinator, CD Humanities History and Sociology teacher.
  2. DiDiAC – TalkWall: Developing a dialogic classroom. Catherine Davis, Ass Headteacher, Safron Walden Country High School. (I won’t be discussing this session in this blog, hopefully when I use it in my class I will blog then).


If anyone reads my posts regularly you’ll know I dislike anything that isn’t silent writing! It’s easy to criticise an idea/activity without really buying into it. Everyone has an opinion on classroom teaching!

So, for me, the first session was a must. They discussed everything that makes my eyes twitch; flipped learning, group work and activities. Guess what? I think they’ve converted me! I’ve come to realise perhaps my dislike for these types of activities could just be that I’ve been doing them wrong all this time! And the best bit – they’re all differentiated without you doing anything!

1.Hexagons. A series of hexagons are used filled with various pieces of information. The students then use the hexagons to use as a base for a critical analysis essay. Students are given blank hexagons to make secure links.  Each student or group arrange their hexagons differently and make links to other sources or blanks as they see fit.

Why do I like this? You can give students basic scaffolding, however, they add blanks to complete links and main structure. Ensuring their essay is their own work based on their understanding.


2. Students are given a grid of 20 facts. Very detailed. They then have to arrange the 20 facts onto a graph deciding which is the most important at different points.

How can I use this? In English, we study novels and one thing students can find hard is the structure of a story; how has an author created an overall effect. So, for example in A Christmas Carol, I will give my student 5 key events in each stave, then will then mark their graph at the bottom, and along the Y-axis they can add; characters, themes, context, etc in different colours and mark the importance of each at different parts of a story. At the end, they have a clear visual representation of the story. I will then get my students to finish this off with a paragraph evaluating their choices.

In case you were wondering about a graph being confusing, I was thinking like this:


3. A stretch and challenge activity. Again students are given a sheet with 3 facts, in the blank box students need to compare the facts to their own ideas; do they agree with the evidence? If not, what are they basing their argument on? Students have to show an analytical approach. This makes students engage with critical arguments and consider other aspects.


4. Text tiles. This is very similar to the hexagons and are mostly used for flipped learning homework (students need to research a concept/idea, eg read a piece of text, research or watch a video, before the next lesson).  They for example then need to prioritise each tile – which is the most important to the least important. Then evaluate, making a judgement with an exam style question and finally transfer to a written piece of work.


5. Concept task – I’ve already used this one with my A level class. It’s fairly self-explanatory, but I got my students to write an Alevel concept eg Grice’s Maxims in the centre of a page, then they just work their way around the 5 questions answering each one to help them understand. This worked really well. Loved it!



6. Students are given large sheets of paper and in different colours annotate as much as they know about several given topics. Once they can see all the information around them they begin to see patterns, that they can’t often see.


7. Students are given blank grids and fill in with as much information that they know/understand on a given topic, split into subheadings. When finished they then have to arrange and discuss their cards in different orders according to the 2nd resource. You can get students to order the ideas in a different order according to different questions or ideas, does this change their perception of a concept? In English, their questions could easily be adapted to a book/poem students are studying.

8. Students are given an exam style question and then a scaffolded resource to help them develop their critical analysis skills. Students work through the steps, with modelled examples to help them understand how they need to bring all the information together.


Why I liked these so much was the school has seen a rise in the quality of essays written by their students and their results have gone up in their subject. They don’t use these as a 10-minute filler in a lesson. These are planned and created to have a purpose and ultimately help students become analytical in their thinking and writing ability. The activities are used over a period of several lessons, building up to a full written analytical essay.

It’s easy to criticise an idea, but what I can’t argue with is their results have increased because they are writing better critical essays. I suppose (maybe) it depends on how much you’re willing to buy into it.

I will be using these myself as the year progresses.  All of the above can be transferred to other subjects easily.

Thank you for reading!


“Damned if I Do”

Then scream at me for not giving you more time, more time

Damned if I do, damned if I don’t

Prince – “Damned if I Do”  – Emancipation


“Damned if I do”, I think that’s how many teachers feel about trying new things in their classroom. From September, below are a few changes I will “trial” in the hope they lead to better progress.

As an English teacher, our marking workload can be large; everything we mark is ‘extended writing’ and most of us spend hours of our life reading student work. I hope I am correct also in assuming no teacher minds marking, it’s one of the most important ways we can really assess student understanding. Only there’s a “but”, and it’s that “but” that’s had me thinking for a long time about the progress made by a student after I mark their work.

My current system requires me to mark a piece of extended writing and provide individual feedback which includes two comments; what the student did well (beyond the words good) and something they can do to improve their work. The issue I have with this is students don’t make the progress I hope for (rapid or not). How does a student get to year 11 and still not understand how to write an analytical paragraph? Every English teacher has had students using them since year7. Similar to capital letters and full stops, there isn’t a primary school that doesn’t teach students to use them – so why don’t they?

I feel our system, which is used in many schools, isn’t as effective as it could be, it only “appears” to work/show progress.

I spoke at length with Lyndsey Caldwell (@MsCaldwell1) and she recommended I read “Bringing Words To Life”. If you haven’t, I strongly advise you do, alongside “Reading Reconsidered”. I then went to my Head and asked if I could try something different with a group to see if tweaking our systems could lead to better progress. This is what I’ve come up with:

1) Knowledge Organisers

I’ve looked at the unit I’m teaching for the next 6 weeks and created a knowledge organiser (fancy word for a glossary) which has terms students will need to learn. Joe Kirby (

I’ve now created one for the unit my students are learning. It’s a combination of subject terminology, command words and vocabulary.  Students will have to memorise the words/spellings and definitions for homework.

2) Anthologies

Standing at a photocopier seems to be a permanent place for an English Teacher! We copy resources, guillotine and then get students to glue into their books which I don’t mind, what I do mind is when I mark a book and all I find on my perfectly cut extract one brightly highlighted word and often NO annotations as to why a student thinks it’s worthy of being in bright yellow!

I’ve put together a set of anthologies for each unit I teach containing all the extracts (or poems) etc that I intend to teach for the 6 weeks.


My fantastic resources dpt have made them up into A3 booklets for me. However, I don’t want students annotating in the anthologies (not at KS3).  The hope here is students will learn how to “select” relevant or better word/phrase/technique(s) and copy into their books and annotate in their book. I want to see students picking better words and analysing them using a dictionary or a thesaurus. Also, if I teach 3 year 7 classes I only have to photocopy a resource book once, as opposed to my perfectly cut resource three times, so hopefully save money/time there.

When students arrive to lesson I will hand them the anthology and they can all read the extract (in silence/quietly). I hope this works on several levels; calms students, gives me time to hand out books/take register and students can see the text in advance and familiarise themselves with the text we will use that lesson.

3) 5-a-Day

For students to answer their end of term assessment (say in literature) they need to be able to recall a large amount of information about a book eg themes, quotes, context etc. It’s a lot to ask students to do when they possibly read part of a text 20 lessons ago. To combat this I’ve created a set of five questions a day inspired by @Corbettmaths read hereYou can also read more on 5-a-day from the very talented Rebecca Foster (@TLPMsF) who’s blogged on it here specifically relating to English.

The only difference I’ve made is mine will appear on a ppt rather than a resource (to save on resources/time). I’ve created 1 for every lesson of the unit and covers all words/terms used in my knowledge organiser (1). This will hopefully help embed new vocabulary and terms.

4) PA/Self Assessment

If I’m honest, I’ve never had any real faith in peer or self-assessment. I must be rubbish at teaching it because my students are just not very good at it. I do lessons on it, I think I am teaching them how to do it, yet after a piece of writing if I ask “is it good?” I will be met with “no idea”. If they peer assess, students very rarely give a comment that would actually improve another student’s work. And yes I have made them watch Austin’s Butterfly video (if you’ve never seen it, check it out on youtube).

This year I am changing how I lead on PA.

  1. I’ve built PA/Self-Assessment into every 4th lesson on my SOW
  2. I’ve made up a “How to write an analytical paragraph” booklet (see below).  which is a differentiated step by step guide showing the process from the extract, to a finished example.
  3. DIRT (Dedicated improvement reflection time) has been built into the second half of the 4th lesson.
  4. Student feedback is being changed to Whole class feedback.



I want students to become better at understanding why or where they went wrong on a piece of writing. I hope a clear step by step process will help.

After a lovely twitter exchange with David Jones (@ewenfields), he pointed me in the direction of the two following blogs and the way his school, Meols Cop High School, have had led research projects in this area Learning and Teaching Blog and Marking and Feedback 1. I then came up with the following:



These will be printed back/back and I will keep these and hand out when needed. The front has basic checks for students to go through before they hand work back to me. If, for example, a student doesn’t use capital letters I will give them extra support (in the form of a worksheet). I hope this ensures a little more care with basic SPaG errors.

On the back I’ve split the different elements of what I look for in an analytical paragraph and come up with a simple tick for good/relevant and cross for needs improving and “code” eg

  • CF – clear focus – Make a point/express an opinion relevant to answering the question

The explicit definitions will help students understand/remember what I expect from “clear focus”.   I’ve grouped the marking codes into a simple hierarchy.

The final step is the whole class feedback. You may ask why am I changing this if it’s the whole school! A while back as part of CPD all staff were asked to take a book with (what we considered) outstanding marking to a room and all staff wandered around looking at them. I noticed one of my department’s and couldn’t resist reading. The teacher had given a clear WWW and clear EBI and the student (top set) had improved their work, but what I noticed was the teacher had said something (along the lines) go back and analyse one word in detail eg stabbed. What had the top set student done? Had they gone back and re-read the extract, selected a relevant word and analysed to a high standard? No, they analysed the word their teacher directed them to “stabbed”. It struck me then – where’s the learning?

I’ve adapted our school feedback sheet to remove individual comments and I will now give ONE whole class WWW and ONE EBI. Students have had their individual feedback in coded comments down the margin. The EBI will be a ‘develop and stretch’ question that they will need to incorporate into their improved response.


I want students to use the analytical paragraph A3 guide, and the DIRT sheet with the marking codes to improve their work. They will write the code they have chosen to improve on the feedback sheet.

To consolidate learning students will use the code they decided to improve their focus for their next piece of writing (say two weeks later).  They just need to flick back and write the code they chose to improve at the top of the new piece of extended writing and then highlight where they feel they have met this again on a new piece of work. I hope this will really help students master a skill. Also, if I or they flick through their writing it will be very clear which aspects they keep missing. If it’s several then we can sit and have a conversation about why they’re finding it difficult to remember.


What I am trying to achieve is making my students understand for themselves where they went wrong or where they could pick marks up without me explicitly directing them to it. I hope this will lead to better progress if they can begin to really understand what to improve and this independence will help them in exams when I’m not there!

This is all a trial/project. I will do a follow-up blog around Christmas.

Thank you for reading.


With no more fruit 2 bear from its trees,

the Haze was finally broken

Prince  – “Deconstruction” – The Rainbow Children


Examiner Top Tips

Once the August result haze leaves English teachers up and down the country, what’s better than sitting down and working out what we did well, or not so well?

One such day I sat looking at our data and I chatted at length with my friend Becky Wood (@shadylady222). She had already begun deconstructing the AQA Examiner Reports for both language papers.

What Becky did, I think was pretty clever, she went through the reports and created an ‘at a glance’ top tips, and the key positive/negative points from the GCSE examiners report. These can then be used to inform teaching or as reminders for revision. I then offered to help by completing all matching resources for both literature papers/reports,

Becky does AQA (you can find them on her timeline on twitter).

I’ve created the Edexcel ones here:

Edexcel – June 2018

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 02 – Paper 2

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 2

AQA 2017

AQA GCSE English Language Paper 1 (8700/1) Explorations in creative reading and writing

AQA GCSE English Language Paper 2 (8700/2) Writers’ viewpoints and perspectives

AQA GCSE English Literature Paper 1 (8702/1) Shakespeare and the 19th-century novel

AQA GCSE English Literature Paper 2 (8702/2) Modern texts and poetry


Thank you once again to Becky for the templates and idea!


Structure (Gothic)

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

This is a typical question for P1 Q3 Structure:


And these are the skill descriptors you need to meet:


You must comment on effective structural features an author has made.

Remember you will analyse a larger extract, with several structural features. The ones I’ve used below are a single paragraph. At the end I’ve listed structural features to look out for.

The Woman in Black – Susan Hill

Baffled I stood and waited, straining to listen through the mist. What I heard next chilled and horrified me, even though I could neither understand nor account for it. The noise of the pony and trap grew fainter and then stopped abruptly and away on the marsh was a curious draining, sucking, churning sound, which went on, together with the shrill neighing and whinnying of a horse in panic, and then I heard another cry, a shout, a terrified sobbing – it was hard to decipher – but with horror I realised that it came from a child. I stood absolutely helpless in the mist that clouded me and everything from my sight, almost weeping in an agony of fear and frustration, and I knew that I was hearing, beyond any doubt, the appalling last noises of a pony and trap, carrying a child in it, as well as whatever adult – presumably Keckwick – was driving and was even now struggling desperately. It had somehow lost the causeway path and fallen into the marshes and was being dragged under by the quicksand and the pull of the incoming tide.

Structural techniques/features:

  • focus begins on the character listening in the darkness
  • clause order of first two sentences – consider Hill’s initial emphasis, question why?
  • then the third very complex sentence full of compounds, clauses and punctuation talking in 1st person. Could represent the character’s disorientation.
  • semantic field/pattern of language associated with hysteria and confusion
  • then the final sentence full of terrifying emotive language

Wuthering Heights – Emily Bronte

This time, I remembered I was lying in the oak closet, and I heard distinctly the gusty wind, and the driving of the snow; I heard, also, the fir bough repeat its teasing sound, and ascribed it to the right cause: but it annoyed me so much, that I resolved to silence it, if possible; and, I thought, I rose and endeavoured to unhasp the casement. The hook was soldered into the staple: a circumstance observed by me when awake, but forgotten.  ‘I must stop it, nevertheless!’ I muttered, knocking my knuckles through the glass, and stretching an arm out to seize the importunate branch; instead of which, my fingers closed on the fingers of a little, ice-cold hand!  The intense horror of nightmare came over me: I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clung to it, and a most melancholy voice sobbed, ‘Let me in–let me in!’  ‘Who are you?’ I asked, struggling, meanwhile, to disengage myself.  ‘Catherine Linton,’it replied, shiveringly (why did I think of _Linton_?

Structural techniques/features:

  • extract focuses on the character’s thoughts and what they appear to be seeing
  • a series of complex sentences with several breaks (semi-colons) could represent how the character feels in the nightmare
  • the dialogue in the middle of the text, disorientates the reader
  • Use of exclamation marks to convey emotion character feels


Catherine’s heart beat quick, but her courage did not fail her. With a cheek flushed by hope, and an eye straining with curiosity, her fingers grasped the handle of a drawer and drew it forth. It was entirely empty. With less alarm and greater eagerness she seized a second, a third, a fourth; each was equally empty. Not one was left unsearched, and in not one was anything found. Well read in the art of concealing a treasure, the possibility of false linings to the drawers did not escape her, and she felt round each with anxious acuteness in vain. The place in the middle alone remained now unexplored; and though she had “never from the first had the smallest idea of finding anything in any part of the cabinet, and was not in the least disappointed at her ill success thus far, it would be foolish not to examine it thoroughly while she was about it.”

Structural techniques/features:

  • language such as quick, greater eagerness, heightens the pace of the extract for the reader
  • nearly all sentences are complex with main part of clause first, building the tension in the scene
  • Focus is all on Catherine and her search in the room
  • all in 3rd person as if we’re watching her.

The Castle Of Otranto –  H Walpole

The lower part of the castle was hollowed into several intricate cloisters, and it was not easy for one under so much anxiety to find the door that opened into the cavern.  An awful silence reigned throughout those subterraneous regions, except now and then some blasts of wind that shook the doors she had passed, and which, grating on the rusty hinges, were re-echoed through that long labyrinth of darkness.  Every murmur struck her with new terror; yet more she dreaded to hear the wrathful voice of Manfred urging his domestics to pursue her.

Structural techniques/features:

  • the focus is on the underneath of the Castle (the setting)
  • language such as anxiety will make the journey tense for reader
  • language such as cavern, lower part, Castle, will create a dark, enclosed setting building the fear felt
  • first is a very long, complex sentence full of punctuation, followed by a second complex sentence. both are descriptive and highlight a frightening journey

The Monk – M. G. Lewis

I hesitated not to obey her: but unwilling to leave the Baroness a victim to the vengeance of the Robbers, I raised her in my arms still sleeping, and hastened after Marguerite.  The Horses of the Banditti were fastened near the door:  My Conductress sprang upon one of them. I followed her example, placed the Baroness before me, and spurred on my Horse.  Our only hope was to reach Strasbourg, which was much nearer than the perfidious Claude had assured me.  Marguerite was well acquainted with the road, and galloped on before me.  We were obliged to pass by the Barn, where the Robbers were slaughtering our Domestics. The door was open:  We distinguished the shrieks of the dying and imprecations of the Murderers!  What I felt at that moment language is unable to describe!

Structural techniques/features:

  • focuses on an escape, switches from character to the robbers to add excitement and tension to the scene
  • written in 1st person POV
  • last two sentences end with an exclamation mark
  • verbs such as hastened, sprang and spurred, add to the pace of the scene for the reader
  • emotive language such as slaughtering, dying and murderers will add fear at the end of the scene


The Picture of Dorian Gray – Oscar Wilde

Dorian Gray glanced at the picture, and suddenly an uncontrollable feeling of hatred for Basil Hallward came over him, as though it had been suggested to him by the image on the canvas, whispered into his ear by those grinning lips.  The mad passions of a hunted animal stirred within him, and he loathed the man who was seated at the table, more than in his whole life he had ever loathed anything.  He glanced wildly around.  Something glimmered on the top of the painted chest that faced him.  His eye fell on it.  He knew what it was.  It was a knife that he had brought up, some days before, to cut a piece of cord, and had forgotten to take away with him.  He moved slowly towards it, passing Hallward as he did so.  As soon as he got behind him, he seized it and turned round.  Hallward stirred in his chair as if he was going to rise.  He rushed at him and dug the knife into the great vein that is behind the ear, crushing the man’s head down on the table and stabbing again and again.

Structural techniques/features:

  • The focus is on Dorian Gray
  • language such as adverb ‘suddenly’ are shocking because it was unexpected.
  • In the middle, Wilde uses simple sentences to build the tension and callousness Gray murders his friend
  • Then switches to longer more descriptive sentences similar to Gray’s movements ‘slowly towards’
  • then the final sentence focuses on the murder and the frenzied attack


This question assesses how the writer has structured a text.  Look for

  1. a new paragraph – a shift in perspective, character, setting.
  2. look at the beginning/end of the extract.
  3. look for a topic change.
  4. look for exclamation marks they indicate excitement/anger or sense of urgency.
  5. look for short sentences, suggest faster pace, the building of tension.
  6. look for verbs that mirror actions eg run may suggest pace picks up!
  7. look for comparisons (simile/metaphor) that add to the pace of action.
  8. look for complex sentences that mirror the characters/setting mood/action.
  9. look for clause order, which is at the start, main or subordinate clause.
  10. look for patterns in words that suggest ongoing action.
  11. look for adjectives/adverbs that add to meaning in an extract eg a train moved angrily.
  12. look for descriptive writing/dialogue in an extract.
  13. what is a reader drawn to see/think or feel?
  14. are certain elements foregrounded? If so why?
  15. look for conjunctions connecting events.


Thank you for reading.

Evaluating Dickens

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

This is a typical question for P1 Q4 Evaluate:


These are the skill descriptors you need to meet:


When answering this question look for:

  • narrative perspective
  • sensory language
  • powerful imagery
  • emotive language
  • techniques used for effect

I will look at each extract slightly differently, hopefully together you will see which details to annotate, then how to use them collectively to build a chohesive evaluative comment.  At the end I’ve listed other evaluative features to look for.

David Copperfield

It was a murky confusion—here and there blotted with a colour like the colour of the smoke from damp fuel—of flying clouds, tossed up into most remarkable heaps, suggesting greater heights in the clouds than there were depths below them to the bottom of the deepest hollows in the earth, through which the wild moon seemed to plunge headlong, as if, in a dread disturbance of the laws of nature, she had lost her way and were frightened. There had been a wind all day; and it was rising then, with an extraordinary great sound. In another hour it had much increased, and the sky was more overcast, and blew hard.

Techniques used: imagery, emotive language, personification, simile, extended metaphor

Possible choices: 

  • noun-confusion-suggests uncertainty
  • verb-blotted-suggests stain
  • tossed-verb-suggests throw,
  • ‘greater heights’ v ‘depths below’ v ‘deepest hollows’,
  • adjective-wild-suggests untamed,
  • verb-plunge-suggests dive/thrust
  • alliterative ‘dread disturbance’
  • adjective lost and frightened
  • ‘there had been’ past tense clause and semi-colon
  • rising‘ and ‘extraordinary’ adj meaning remarkable/incredible
  • great, overcast, blew hard

Evaluative comment: I agree with the student, Dickens has used a powerful extended metaphor to describe the incredible and exciting turbulent weather. Dicken’s has successfully used words such as ‘flying’, ‘tossed’, ‘wild’ and ‘plunge’ to personify the movement of the clouds appearing uncontrollable. This vivid description ensures a reader can visualise the weather as not only beautiful but also terrifying. It makes you feel as if you are underneath the darkness, feeling its power.

A Christmas Carol

Oh! but he was a tight-fisted hand at the grindstone, Scrooge! a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner! Hard and sharp as flint, from which no steel had ever struck out generous fire; secret, and self- contained, and solitary as an oyster. The cold within him froze his old features, nipped his pointed nose, shrivelled his cheek, stiffened his gait; made his eyes red, his thin lips blue; and spoke out shrewdly in his grating voice. A frosty rime was on his head, and on his eyebrows, and his wiry chin. He carried his own low temperature always about with him; he iced his office “In the dog-days”; and didn’t thaw it one degree at Christmas.

Techniques & Possible choices (this extract is full of imagery and techniques):

  • tight-fisted
  • grindstone
  • “squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner!”
  • Hard and sharp as flint
  • no steel struck out generous fire;
  • secret, and self- contained, and solitary as an oyster.
  • froze his old features,
  • nipped his pointed nose,
  • shrivelled his cheek,
  • stiffened his gait;
  • made his eyes red, his thin lips blue – Red – evil, blue – cold makes him sound like a monster, unlikeable
  • shrewdly in his grating voice.
  • A frosty rime
  • wiry chin.
  • at Christmas.

Possible evaluative comments: Powerful verbs and modifiers build somebody, unpleasant, he’s presented as mean both with money and in spirit. The simile is successful because it compares him to a cold unfeeling rock- he is presented as a cold, mean and a private person suggesting he is never warm or generous. By using the simile to compare Scrooge to a stone, “flint” we understand that he is hard-hearted yet also sharp and quick-witted. When I read, I would link the image of a flint as a stone the sharpen knives giving him a menacing image. Sibilance is used throughout, “sharp”, “steel”, “secret” giving an almost snake-like image for me by repeating the ‘s’ sound. The vivid description makes the character appear secretive, rule 3, Oyster is a hard shell but soft in inside, all words convey a lonely and distant man separated from others by choice. Furthermore, Dickens has cleverly used another simile to compare him to “oyster” supporting his hard image and also presenting him as secretive and isolated. The reader may also sympathise with Scrooge as it suggests loneliness. Also, like an oyster is effective because it is suggesting that he may also have a special quality, yet to be revealed. I can imagine the cold weather and relate to the character, Dickens’ use of the long, complex sentence structure adds to the feeling that Scrooge is difficult and complicated. The description of Scrooge is highly effective as it is detailed and layered. On the surface, he is unpleasant and friendless. However, Dickens also foreshadows a more positive character to come and creates sympathy for me.

Bleak House

Implacable November weather. As much mud in the streets, as if the waters had but newly retired from the face of the earth, and it would not be wonderful to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up Holborn Hill. Smoke lowering down from chimney-pots, making a soft black drizzle with flakes of soot in it as big as full-grown snowflakes – gone into mourning, one might imagine, for the death of the sun. Dogs, undistinguishable in mire. Horses, scarcely better; splashed to their very blinkers. Foot passengers, jostling one another’s umbrellas, in a general infection of ill temper, and losing their foot-hold at street-corners, where tens of thousands of other foot passengers have been slipping and sliding since the day broke (if this day ever broke), adding new deposits to the crust upon crust of mud, sticking at those points tenaciously to the pavement, and accumulating at compound interest.

Techniques & Possible choices: 

  • Implacable
  • mud
  • as if the waters had but newly retired from the face of the earth,
  • Megalosaurus
  • waddling like an elephantine lizard
  • Smoke lowering down from chimney-pots
  • soft black drizzle
  • flakes of soot in it as big as full-grown snowflakes
  • gone into mourning,
  • for the death of the sun.
  • Dogs, Horses,
  • Foot passengers,
  • jostling one another’s umbrellas,
  • infection of ill temper,
  • losing their foot-hold
  • tens of thousands
  • slipping and sliding
  • broke
  • the crust upon crust of mud,
  • sticking
  • tenaciously

Evaluative language: reflects, observes, reveals, implies, exposes, evokes, illustrates, considers,

Great Expectations 

She was dressed in rich materials-satins, and lace, and silks – all of white. Her shoes were white. And she had a long white veil dependent from her hair, and she had bridal flowers in her hair, but her hair was white. Some bright jewels sparkled on her neck and on her hands, and some other jewels lay sparkling on the table. Dresses, less splendid than the dress she wore, and half-packed trunks, were scattered about. She had not quite finished dressing, for she had but one shoe on-the other was on the table near her hand-her veil was but half arranged, her watch and chain were not put on, and some lace for her bosom lay with those trinkets, and with her handkerchief, and gloves, and some flowers, and a Prayer-book, all confusedly heaped about the looking-glass.

Techniques & Possible choices: 

  • rich, jewels, silk, splendid – suggest wealth
  • satin, lace, white – suggest layers ( a metaphor for how complicated Havisham is?)
  • repeated white – suggests innocence, purity
  • contradiction with her age, and choice of words ‘some bright’ ‘other jewels lay’ suggesting innocence has gone (left with), now bitterness?
  • scattered, half arranged, heaped could suggest her mental state or the suddenness of being jilted – again a metaphor for the fickleness of love/males?
  • listing of items, effective as it draws out her (original) happiness
  • the paragraph ends with ‘looking-glass’ – emphasises the importance of what she sees/what she was/has become.

Possible evaluative language:

  • Dickens endeavours to show….
  • Dickens expresses a view …. to the effect…
  • seeks to criticise
  • attempts to expose…..

Nicholas Nickleby – Dotheby’s Hall

Pale and haggard faces, lank and bony figures, children with the countenances of old men, deformities with irons upon their limbs, boys of stunted growth, and others whose long meagre legs would hardly bear their stooping bodies, all crowded on the view together; there were the bleared eye, the hare-lip, the crooked foot, and every ugliness or distortion that told of unnatural aversion conceived by parents for their offspring, or of young lives which, from the earliest dawn of infancy, had been one horrible endurance of cruelty and neglect. There were little faces which should have been handsome, darkened with the scowl of sullen, dogged suffering; there was childhood with the light of its eye quenched, its beauty gone, and its helplessness alone remaining; there were vicious-faced boys, brooding, with leaden eyes, like malefactors in a gaol; and there were young creatures on whom the sins of their frail parents had descended, weeping even for the mercenary nurses they had known, and lonesome even in their loneliness.

Brief evaluative plan: look above at the patterns/contrasts in the language used by Dickens to describe the children. This extract is full of imagery, techniques and vivid language. The extract shows a very explicit description of just how miserable this school for unwanted children is. Their faces are “pale and haggard,” their bodies deformed, showing anger and misery and suffering.  Dickens uses detail to overwhelm the reader with the suffering of these children.

Evaluative sentence stems: 

  • creates a [….] scene
  • creates the impression….
  • helps the reader feel…..
  • the writer’s choice is effective because……
  • the author builds dramatic tension….

A Tale of Two Cities – The Shoemaker

A broad ray of light fell into the garret, and showed the workman with an unfinished shoe upon his lap, pausing in his labour. His few common tools and scraps of leather were at his feet and on his bench. He had a white beard, raggedly cut, but not very long, a hollow face and exceedingly bright eyes. The hollowness and thinness of his face would have caused them to look large, under his yet dark eyebrows and his confused white hair, though they had been really otherwise; but, they were naturally large, and looked unnaturally so. His yellow rags of shirt lay open at the throat and showed his body to be withered and worn.  He, and his old canvas frock, and his loose stockings, and all his poor tatters of clothes, in a long seclusion from direct light and air, faded down to such a dull uniformity of parchment-yellow, that it would have been hard to say which was which.

Important details:  the character is described as more dead than alive, with his hollow face, withered body, and a hand so thin that it looks transparent.  He’s got a raggedly cut white beard, a hollow face, and very bright eyes. His tattered yellow shirt shows a withered and worn body. He has faded down to a dull parchment colour due to lack of direct sunlight and air (a metaphor for freedom?); he blends into his yellow shirt, making it difficult to distinguish one from another.

Possible Evaluation sentences:

  • the author slowly reveals…..
  • the author is suggesting
  • I particularly liked the description…..
  • it made me feel/see/hear….
  • I believed…..

Here are other evaluative comments that you can look for in a text:

  1. look for patterns in words that create strong images
  2. look for emotive language that makes the reader feel something
  3. look for punctuation to enhance meaning
  4. look for verbs or modifiers that have strong connotations (positive or negative)
  5. look for adjectives/adverbs that add to the meaning and help you see an image vividly
  6. look for descriptions that reveal a different focus
  7. look for the senses, used to help reader’s understanding
  8. look for any technique used eg personification/onomatopoeia to reinforce an idea
  9. look for descriptions that build up an image for the reader (eg weather)
  10. look for patterns that build tension across an extract


Try using some of these verbs:


Thank you for reading.



Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

This is a typical question for P2 Q4 Comparison of viewpoint:


AQA Paper2, Question 4 asks for a comparison of writer’s view/perspective and what methods (techniques) the author/writer used to convey them. You need to meet these skill descriptors:


What do you think the viewpoint of these short extracts are?


I don’t think it is coincidence that it’s taken a few hours of the morning sun warming the water for the bigger fish to be found more regularly in shallower water. It’s not always the case, but most reports of bigger fish have come after a couple of hours of sunlight.


Techniques: 1st person POV, long and complex sentence, short paragraphs, building up excitement, alliteration, repetition of idea, present tense.

View/Perspective: anticipation, patience, mysterious.


It seemed like a bit of a joke at first. “I’m making my family German,” I would announce to friends in glee, delighting in their surprise and interest. My enthusiasm motivated my mother to apply for her own dual citizenship. The paperwork for my five-year-old nephew is almost ready to be submitted for his own certificate and passport. But it seemed too far-fetched to take seriously: I couldn’t quite believe we would be accepted, despite our cultural right to be.


Techniques: 1st person POV, anecdotes, emotive, direct speech, informal, past tense.

View/Perspective: positive, upbeat, pensive, scared.


Parenting is a complex job and it is not uncommon for modern parents to need a little help along the way. Parenting is a huge responsibility, especially in the times we live in. And there are many different kinds of parenting classes, designed for different stages of parenting. So whether first time parents need a little help with the basics of baby care or even more seasoned parents need some advice on potty training or bullying at school, it is important for parents to seek help and advice.


Techniques: 3rd person POV, emotive, present tense, repetition of ‘parenting’, opinion. present tense, persuasive.

View/Perspective: serious, informative, biased tone leads to persuasion.


Hines’s research, the most up to date, did however identify a gendered divide in the preference for toys. Although not a strict rule, boys were more likely to look at cars and girls at dolls. Previous studies have found that this not only relates to the gender of children but their exposure to androgen (“male” hormones) in the womb. This American research even showed that there is a similar gendered preference for toys in monkeys leading some to conclude that children are born with gendered tastes in toys.


Techniques: 3rd person POV, formal, serious, long complex sentences, facts, technical language, mixture of tenses (mainly past)

View/Perspective: formal and concluding, respectful


Millions of young men were slaughtered during the first world war – “body-bagged for life”, in Sainsbury’s parlance – and doubtless as they lay dying in foreign fields, gazing down at what remained of their mud-caked, punctured, broken bodies, gasping their final agonised breaths, it would have been a great source of comfort for them to know their noble sacrifice would still be honoured a century later, in an advert for a shop.


Techniques: 3rd person POV, informal, emotive, hyperbole, imagery, alliteration, one long complex sentence/paragraph, quotes, deliberately inappropriate humour.

View/Perspective: Sarcastic, informal, scathing, scornful, mocking, facetious


Thanks for reading