1000 X’s & O’s – Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

You work so hard, you really do
I don’t think that anyone could work as hard as you

Prince -1000 X’s & O’s  –  HITnRUN – Phase One

 

Getting Started: GCSE (9-1) English  – Edexcel

Moving schools means, learning a new spec! Teachers deserve lots of X’x & O’s! For further information on Edexcel go to their website here.  I’ve written this blog to help any newbie to the spec, and to get it straight in my head myself. I will revisit it and ‘edit’ until I am happy with it.  1000 X’s & O’s – Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing is part of a set of two blogs. The second can be found here.

 

Component 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

  • Total marks: 64
  • Weighting: 40%
  • Questions to answer: 5 (4 reading; 1 writing)
  • Exam time: 1 hour 45 minutes

 

Paper 1: Fiction and Imaginative Writing

1 hour 45 minutes

Part a: Reading (1 hour)

  • Q1: Identifying a quotation (5 mins) – AO1
  • Q2: Making inferences (5 mins) – AO1
  • Q3: Analysing language and structure (15 mins) – AO2
  • Q4: Evaluation (20 mins) – AO4

Part b: Writing (45 mins)

  • Q5/6: Imaginative writing – AO5/6

For the purpose of this blog I have used Pearson Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 GCSE (9-1) in English Language Paper 1 (1EN0/01) from The Mortal Immortal: Mary Shelley:

Section A: Reading

The focus of this section is on reading and comparing non-fiction and literary nonfiction texts from the 20th and 21st centuries.

Question 1 – Tests AO1 skills – understanding of explicit and implicit information. (1) mark available.

For this question, students must give the only acceptable answer from the board eg

‘A tub had caught all’

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q1) From lines 7–9, identify a phrase which describes what happens to the colour of the
liquid when it changes.

Capture

Accept one of the following:

• ‘[it will] turn white’
• ‘[and then] emit golden flashes’
• ‘the rose-colour fades’

Question 2– Tests AO1 skills – understanding of explicit and implicit information. (2) marks available.

For this question, students can use quotes or their own words, using the question focus in a very simple/basic sentence strucure eg

  • he shows them the whole house
  • he encourages them to search ‘well’

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q2 From lines 1–10, give two ways tiredness affected Cornelius. You may use your own words or quotations from the text.

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Accept any reasonable answer based on lines 1-10, up to a maximum of 2 marks.
Quotations and candidate’s own words are acceptable. For example:

  • although Cornelius is anxious ‘sleep weighted upon his eyelids’
  • Cornelius has to throw off tiredness with almost superhuman energy/‘he threw off drowsiness with more than human energy’
  • sleep is described as stealing his senses/‘again and again it stole away his senses’
  • he is described as talking in a quiet and indistinct way: ‘murmured’/ he almost falls asleep talking as the narrator says the last words were muttered ‘in sleep’.

 

Question 3 – Tests AO2 skills – Language, structure and form (6 marks)

The focus of AO2 is on the ways writers use language to create effect; the focus is on specific writer techniques (rather than a judgement of overall success of type, form or
purpose, which is AO4).

Language analysis – take these words and phrases from an (made-up) extract describing weather:

  • The words ‘barged’, ‘fought back’ and ‘enemy outside’ suggest the people are in a battle against nature; ‘enemy’ suggests hostility or an element that could weaken and therefore could imply that the personification of the weather is behaving in an unnatural way by surrounding the characters.

Structure analysis – take these sentences “Faster!” Cathy urged herself on. Her legs urged. Her lungs screamed. But She was gaining on them. She overtook one. Still faster!

  • The short sentences increase the pace in the same way ‘Cathy’s’ movements are rapid creating a sense of apprehension and excitement for the reader.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q3 In lines 14–25, how does the writer use language and structure to show the narrator’s
feelings about Bertha? Support your views with reference to the text.

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Reward responses that explain how the writer uses language and structure to show the narrator’s feelings about Bertha in lines 14-25. Responses may include the following points about the language of the text:

  • the narrator uses hyperbole and repetition to heighten his sense of loss: ‘a thousand charming scenes never to be renewed – never!’
  • he uses metaphor: ‘Serpents and adders were in my heart’ shows how negative his thoughts are about Bertha and her deceit
  • he uses critical language and negative adjectives to show his sense of hatred towards her: ‘False girl! – false and cruel!’; ‘Worthless, detested’
  • the description of how he seeks his ‘vengeance’ by wishing Albert would die or ‘expire at her feet’ shows his anger and extreme abhorrence at Bertha’s relationship with Albert
  • the description of Bertha’s contemptuousness and power over him illustrates his misery: ‘she knew my wretchedness’; ‘exciting my hate’ (juxtaposition)
  • the narrator feels ‘rejected love’ for Bertha but has to ignore his feelings of love and wishes to appear ‘indifferent’ to cope with her rejection: ‘regard her with careless eyes … that were indeed a victory!’
  • the metaphor of battle is used to apply to his emotions to succumb to a ‘victory’ and ‘triumph’
  • the use of questions to show his torment – ‘Yet what power had she?’ and exclamation marks throughout to show his anger and despair
  • the use of the personal pronoun ‘she’ rather than using her name shows his disdain and disgust for Bertha.

Responses may include the following points about the structure of the text:

  • the narrator uses repetition to show his despair and anger: ‘Never’; ‘False’
  • the section is structured to show the narrator’s range of feelings for Bertha
  • the use of connectives shows how the narrator’s torment is emphasised: ‘Serpents and adders’; ‘false and cruel’; ‘disdain and triumph’
  • the section is structured as all one paragraph which shows the pace of events as his torment unfolds
  • a variety of sentence types including rhetorical questions, exclamations, short sentences and the use of pauses in the form of dashes to show his spontaneous thinking.

Question 4 – Tests AO4 skills – Evaluate (15 marks)

This AO asks students to look at how well the writer presents ideas, events, themes and settings (rather than how they are presented). Students must put forward their own critical judgements about how well a text fulfils the requirements of type, form or purpose. Their comments must be supported with appropriate references to the text(s) and these may include content, language and/or structure analysis to support their positive or negative comments. The focus here is on the student’s ability to make a critical judgement of the type, form or purpose of a text and, where students refer to the writer’s techniques without making a judgement on a text, they will not be able to move up to the higher bands of the mark scheme. At the highest level, AO4 requires a sustained critical overview from the student and a level of critical distance.

Evaluate – take this extract from a piece of fiction

“It landed on the petrol and with a speed that took Sam’s breath away as the flame leapt up, blues, oranges and yellow filled the darkness, it was alive. He stood there for a moment watching the flame, mesmerised by its beauty as it grew. It spread along the floor as if by magic, moving effortlessly, almost gliding over the petrol.”

The flames are described as if they are alive. Evaluate how successfully the author has achieved this.

By using a third person point of view, the author’s choice allows the reader to see the flames from more than just the character’s perspective. The personification of the fire as it grows and ‘leaps’ around skilfully makes the flames appear exciting and fun almost like a friend to the character, not a dangerous enemy. The flames come alive with the listing of colours “blues, oranges and yellow” as the fire escalates.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

Q4) In this extract, there is an attempt to show how important it is to concentrate on
a task. Evaluate how successfully this is achieved. Support your views with detailed reference to the text

Reward responses that evaluate how successfully the purpose of conveying the importance of concentration is achieved. References to writer’s techniques should only be credited at Level 2 and above if they support the critical judgement of the
text.

Responses may include:

  • the opening idea of tiredness is introduced and developed as Cornelius has watched for three days and nights, showing a sense of exhaustion through concentrating on the liquid
  • the narrator’s clear explanation of Cornelius’s determination to carry out the task further suggests he has to use super-human strength to see the experiment through: ‘threw off drowsiness with more than human energy’
  • the writer shows the idea of self-determination; despite his exhaustion, Cornelius has to convince himself that it is vital he concentrates on monitoring the liquid
  • Cornelius shows how important it is to concentrate; he has to trust the narrator as he cannot concentrate any further: but he explains that the narrator has to concentrate and wake him up when the liquid changes colour
  • Cornelius gives a detailed explanation of changes in the liquid to show how critical precise timing is
  • the philosopher is so focused that he is unable to stop concentrating: even in sleep he gives the narrator further advice: ‘do not touch the vessel’, ‘beware to drink!’
  • the structure shows the consequences of failing to concentrate. The narrator takes the task on, briefly concentrating for ‘a few minutes’ before his ‘thoughts wandered’ to Bertha which shows the conflict between his job and his feelings for her
  • the language used shows that failure to concentrate can have destructive consequences: ‘destroyed the labour of my life’
  • structure is used effectively to contrast the theme of concentration on doing something (observing) and thinking about something (Bertha) and the effect of this contrast
  • the theme of the extract is explored very successfully as the reader is shown that concentration means different things
  • the narrator’s concentration is brought swiftly back following ‘A bright flash’, but instead of awakening Cornelius he concentrates on his own thoughts and feelings and decides to drink the liquid.

 

Section B – Imaginative Writing

(40 marks)

AO5: Composition and organisation – This AO is the first of the writing AOs. When assessing composition, the focus will be on an awareness of purpose and audience as well as the creation of style, tone and register.

● Organisation and structure focuses on content management in terms of constructing paragraphs as well as overall text cohesion.

AO6: Range of vocabulary and sentence structure, accurate spelling and punctuation – The focus is on the following areas:

● spelling – accuracy of spelling is the focus with an acknowledgement that this is
directly related to vocabulary used
● punctuation and grammar – the focus is on how the accuracy and complexity of
punctuation impacts on sentence structure.

Here’s an example from Pearson Edexcel (see above for link)

SECTION B: Imaginative Writing

Answer ONE question. You should spend about 45 minutes on this section. Write your answer in the space provided.

EITHER

 

Q5 Look at the images provided.

Write about a time when you, or someone you know, had to work hard on something.
Your response could be real or imagined. You may wish to base your response on one
of the images.
*Your response will be marked for the accurate and appropriate use of vocabulary,
spelling, punctuation and grammar.
(Total for Question 5 = 40 marks)

OR

Q6 Write about a time when you, or someone you know, did something without thinking
it through.

Your response could be real or imagined.
*Your response will be marked for the accurate and appropriate use of vocabulary,
spelling, punctuation and grammar.
(Total for Question 6 = 40 marks)

My (very) short story is based on *6* a time when I did something without thinking it through:

Pretending to be distracted by a non-existent item, I flick one foot over the other and ignore the clicking of the heels as they walk toward me. My eyes remain fixed on the square marble effect tiles with mottle green swirls.  I don’t look at the closed door in front of me; I don’t want to attract any attention. When the corridor becomes silent I glance sideways at the shiny laptop just sitting there on the desk. I could grab it and run or tip it onto the floor but I know any action will prove futile; my destiny had been set in stone when I’d hit “send”. 

I thought back to that day. The day it began…

Jealousy; that was the reason, I was jealous of her perfect face and her perfect hair and her perfect grades. She was popular with the boys and the girls. Everyone liked her, expect me and that was because more important than those small things; she was kind, and nice. Simply  I wanted to be her.

5* Purpose: to write a real or imagined piece about a time a person had to work hard on something. This may involve a range of approaches, including: description, anecdote, speech, narrative, literary techniques.

Audience: the writing is for a general readership. Candidates can choose to write for an adult audience or an audience of young people.

Form: the response may be narrative, descriptive or a monologue. There should be clear organisation and structure with an introduction, development of points and a conclusion. Some candidates may intentionally adapt their language and style to their audience by using, for example, a more informal or colloquial approach. Candidates may
introduce some literary elements.

Responses may:

  • use the images to inspire writing: a project for school, homework, a practical task like making something, working hard on a physical activity or working together as a team
  • give reasons why it was hard work and the impact on the person doing the work and others: what was achieved as a result of the hard work
  • use appropriate techniques for creative writing: vocabulary, imagery, language techniques
  • use a voice that attempts to make the piece interesting and believable to the chosen audience
  • demonstrate particular understanding of the form used
  • be written in a register and style appropriate for the chosen form, which may include colloquial elements, dialogue within description or narrative, a sustained single voice in monologue.

6* Purpose: to write a real or imagined piece about doing something without thinking it through. This may involve a range of approaches, including: description, anecdote, speech, literary techniques.

Audience: the writing is for a general readership. Candidates can choose to write for an adult audience or an audience of young people.

Form: the response may be narrative, descriptive or a monologue. There should be clear organisation and structure with an introduction, development of points and a conclusion. Some candidates may intentionally adapt their language and style to their audience by using, for example, a more informal or colloquial approach. Candidates may
introduce some literary elements.

Responses may:

  • use an example of doing something without thinking it through: this could be physical (an extreme sport or activity, an adventure, an expedition) or emotional (telling someone something, hiding something)
  • give reasons why the writer did it and whether the experience was positive or negative
  • talk about the impact the experience had on the writer and/or others
  • use appropriate techniques for creative writing: vocabulary, imagery, language techniques
  • use a voice that attempts to make the piece interesting and believable to the chosen audience
  • demonstrate particular understanding of the form used
  • be written in a register and style appropriate for the chosen form, which may include colloquial elements, dialogue within description or narrative, a sustained single voice in monologue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Your Emotional Vocabulary List

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

ANGER, APATHY, and HATRED

Soft Anger and Apathy

Annoyed ~ Apathetic ~ Bored ~ Certain ~ Cold ~ Crabby ~ Cranky ~ Critical ~ Cross ~ Detached ~ Displeased ~ Frustrated ~ Impatient ~ Indifferent ~ Irritated ~ Peeved ~ Rankled

Medium (or Mood-State) Anger

Affronted ~ Aggravated ~ Angry ~ Antagonized ~ Arrogant ~ Bristling ~ Exasperated ~ Incensed ~ Indignant ~ Inflamed ~ Mad ~ Offended ~ Resentful ~ Riled up ~ Sarcastic

Intense Anger and Hatred

Aggressive ~ Appalled ~ Belligerent ~ Bitter ~ Contemptuous ~ Disgusted ~ Furious ~ Hateful ~ Hostile ~ Irate ~ Livid ~ Menacing ~ Outraged ~ Ranting ~ Raving ~ Seething ~ Spiteful ~ Vengeful ~ Vicious ~ Vindictive ~ Violent

 

SHAME and GUILT

Soft Shame and Guilt

Abashed ~ Awkward ~ Discomfited ~ Flushed ~ Flustered ~ Hesitant ~ Humble ~ Reticent ~ Self-conscious ~ Speechless ~ Withdrawn

Medium (or Mood-State) Shame and Guilt

Ashamed ~ Chagrined ~ Contrite ~ Culpable ~ Embarrassed ~ Guilty ~ Humbled ~ Intimidated ~ Penitent ~ Regretful ~ Remorseful ~ Reproachful ~ Rueful ~ Sheepish

Intense Shame and Guilt

Belittled ~ Degraded ~ Demeaned ~ Disgraced ~ Guilt-ridden ~ Guilt-stricken ~ Humiliated ~ Mortified ~ Ostracized ~ Self-condemning ~ Self-flagellating ~ Shamefaced ~ Stigmatized

FEAR, ANXIETY and PANIC

Soft Fear and Anxiety

Alert ~ Apprehensive ~ Cautious ~ Concerned ~ Confused ~ Curious ~ Disconcerted ~ Disoriented ~ Disquieted ~ Doubtful ~ Edgy ~ Fidgety ~ Hesitant ~ Indecisive ~ Insecure ~ Instinctive ~ Intuitive ~  Leery ~ Pensive ~ Shy ~ Timid ~ Uneasy ~ Watchful

Medium (or Mood-State) Fear and Anxiety

Afraid ~ Alarmed ~ Anxious ~ Aversive ~ Distrustful ~ Fearful ~ Jumpy ~ Nervous ~ Perturbed ~ Rattled ~ Shaky ~ Startled ~ Suspicious ~ Unnerved ~ Unsettled ~ Wary ~ Worried

Intense Fear and Panic

Filled with Dread ~ Horrified ~ Panicked ~ Paralyzed ~ Petrified ~ Phobic ~ Shocked ~ Terrorized

 

JEALOUSY & ENVY

Soft Jealousy & Envy

Disbelieving ~ Distrustful ~ Insecure ~ Protective ~ Suspicious ~ Vulnerable

Medium (or Mood-State) Jealousy & Envy

Covetous ~ Demanding ~ Desirous ~ Envious ~ Jealous ~ Threatened

Intense Jealousy & Envy

Avaricious ~ Gluttonous ~ Grasping ~ Greedy ~ Green with Envy ~ Persistently Jealous ~ Possessive Resentful

 

HAPPINESS, CONTENTMENT, and JOY

Soft Happiness

Amused ~ Calm ~ Encouraged ~ Friendly ~ Hopeful ~ Inspired ~ Jovial ~ Open ~ Peaceful ~ Smiling – Upbeat

Medium (or Mood-State) Happiness and Contentment

Cheerful ~ Contented ~ Delighted ~ Excited ~ Fulfilled ~ Glad ~ Gleeful ~ Gratified ~ Happy ~ Healthy Self-esteem ~ Joyful ~ Lively ~ Merry ~ Optimistic ~ Playful ~ Pleased ~ Proud ~ Rejuvenated ~ Satisfied

Intense Happiness, Contentment, and Joy

Awe-filled ~ Blissful ~ Ecstatic ~ Egocentric ~ Elated ~ Enthralled ~ Euphoric ~ Exhilarated ~ Giddy ~ Jubilant ~ Manic ~ Overconfident ~ Overjoyed ~ Radiant ~ Rapturous ~ Self-aggrandized ~ Thrilled

 

SADNESS, GRIEF, and DEPRESSION

Soft Sadness

Contemplative ~ Disappointed ~ Disconnected ~ Distracted ~ Grounded ~ Listless ~ Low ~ Steady ~ Regretful ~ Wistful

Medium (or Mood-State) Sadness, Grief, and Depression

Dejected ~ Discouraged ~ Dispirited ~ Down ~ Downtrodden ~ Drained ~ Forlorn ~ Gloomy ~ Grieving ~ Heavy-hearted ~ Melancholy ~ Mournful ~ Sad ~ Sorrowful ~ Weepy ~ World-weary

Intense Sadness, Grief, and Depression

Anguished ~ Bereaved ~ Bleak ~ Depressed ~ Despairing ~ Despondent ~ Grief-stricken ~ Heartbroken ~ Hopeless ~ Inconsolable ~ Morose

 

DEPRESSION and SUICIDAL URGES

Soft Depression and Suicidal Urges

Apathetic ~ Constantly Irritated, Angry, or Enraged (see the Anger list above) ~ Depressed ~ Discouraged ~ Disinterested ~ Dispirited ~ Feeling Worthless ~ Flat ~ Helpless ~ Humorless ~ Impulsive ~ Indifferent ~ Isolated ~ Lethargic ~ Listless ~ Melancholy ~ Pessimistic ~ Purposeless ~ Withdrawn ~ World-weary

Medium (or Mood-State) Depression and Suicidal Urges

Bereft ~ Crushed ~ Desolate ~ Despairing ~ Desperate ~ Drained ~ Empty ~ Fatalistic ~ Hopeless ~ Joyless ~ Miserable ~ Morbid ~ Overwhelmed ~ Passionless ~ Pleasureless ~ Sullen

Intense Suicidal Urges

Agonized ~ Anguished ~ Bleak ~ Death-seeking ~ Devastated ~ Doomed ~ Gutted ~ Nihilistic ~ Numbed ~ Reckless ~ Self-destructive ~ Suicidal ~ Tormented ~ Tortured

 

Taken/copied from https://karlamclaren.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Emotional-Vocabulary-List-Color.pdf

Synonyms (& Antonyms)

List of Synonyms

  • Action
    • Come — advance, approach, arrive, near, reach
    • Go — depart, disappear, fade, move, proceed, recede, travel
    • Run — dash, escape, elope, flee, hasten, hurry, race, rush, speed, sprint
    • Hurry — rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle
    • Hide — conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
    • Move — plod, go, creep, crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk, traipse, mosey, jog, plug, trudge, slump, lumber, trail, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot, high-tail, streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, fling, scamper, scurry, skedaddle, scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, hump, gallop, lope, accelerate, stir, budge, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, spin, slip, glide, slide, slither, coast, flow, sail, saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, paddle, slouch, prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle, wobble, pace, swagger, promenade, lunge
    • Do — execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
    • Have — hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, believe, bear, beget, occupy, absorb, fill, enjoy
    • Use — employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
    • Get — acquire, obtain, secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, score, accumulate, win, earn, rep, catch, net, bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by, regain, salvage
    • Keep — hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
    • Put — place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do, build
    • Take — hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire, pick, choose, select, prefer, remove, steal, lift, rob, engage, bewitch, purchase, buy, retract, recall, assume, occupy, consume
    • Make — create, originate, invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate, manufacture, produce, build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform, accomplish, earn, gain, obtain, acquire, get
    • Break — fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish, atomize
    • Destroy — ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
    • Kill — slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, cancel, abolish
    • Cut — gash, slash, prick, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop, reduce
    • Fall — drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
    • Fly — soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
    • Decide — determine, settle, choose, resolve
    • Help — aid, assist, support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve, succor, benefit, befriend, abet
    • Mark — label, tag, price, ticket, impress, effect, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign, note, heed, notice, designate
    • Plan — plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure, arrangement, intention, device, contrivance, method, way, blueprint
    • Show — display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove, demonstrate, expose
  • Antonyms
    • Begin — start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
    • End — stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance, cease, halt, stay, pause, discontinue, conclude, finish, quit
    • Big — large, enormous, huge, immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, sizable, grand, great, tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive, spacious, stout, tremendous, titanic, mountainous
    • Little — small, tiny, diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky, cramped, limited, itsy-bitsy, microscopic, slight, petite, minute
    • New — fresh, unique, original, unusual, novel, modern, current, recent
    • Old — feeble, frail, ancient, weak, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded, broken-down, former, old-fashioned, outmoded, passe, veteran, mature, venerable, primitive, traditional, archaic, conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete, extinct
    • False — wrong, fake, fraudulent, counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous, deceptive, groundless, fallacious, incorrect, inaccurate, mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable
    • True — right, accurate, proper, precise, exact, valid, genuine, real, actual, trusty, steady, loyal, dependable, sincere, staunch, correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral, proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
    • Fast — quick, rapid, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly, quickly, snappily, speedily, lickety-split, posthaste, hastily, expeditiously, like a flash
    • Slow — unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, slack
    • Cool — chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
    • Hot — feverish, warm, heated, sweltering, torrid, equatorial, tropical, erotic, passionate, spicy, peppery, pungent, sharp tangy, tart, fiery, flaming, sizzling, charged, burning, seared, chafed´, inflamed, irritated, red, smarting, stinging
    • Quiet — silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful, hushed, inaudible
      reticent, reserved, taciturn, secretive, uncommunicative, tightlipped
    • Noisy — loudly, earsplitting, stentorian, strident, clamorous, boisterous, clangorous, deafening, roisterous, uproarious, pandemoniac
    • All — complete, entire, full, gross, outright, perfect, total, utter, whole, any, complete, every, sum, totality, each and every, every bit of, bar none, every single, everything, everyone
    • None — nothing, nobody, no one, zero, zilch, no one at all, no part, not a bit, not a soul, not a thing, not any, not anyone, not anything, not one, nonexistent, null
      nadir, nil, naught, void, nada, blank, nix
    • Normal — daily, traditional, familiar, routine, proper, ordinary, typical, everyday, usual, commonplace, natural, classic, standard, general, bona fide, established, habitual, orthodox, prevalent, run-of-the-mill, time-honored, unvarying, average, conventional, customary, common, regular, garden-variety, household, plain, simple, balanced
    • Strange — abnormal, aberrant, anomalous, bent, bizarre, deviant, queer, eccentric, freakish, fanatical, odd, eerie, peculiar, weird, unorthodox, nonstandard, atypical, different, irregular, nonconforming, offbeat, unusual, extraordinary, insane, irrational, disorderly, rare, exceptional, extreme, outlandish
  • Descriptive
    • Describe — portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report, record
    • Difference — disagreement, inequity, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
    • Explain — elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
    • Idea — thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view, belief
    • Look — gaze, see, glance, watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep, glimpse, stare, contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold, observe, view, witness, perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye, gawk, peruse, explore
    • Story — tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, sage, anecdote, record, memoir
    • Tell — disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate, narrate, inform, advise, explain, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
    • Think — judge, deem, assume, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, mediate
  • Feelings
    • Anger — enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
    • Angry — mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused, inflamed
    • Calm — quiet, peaceful, still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected, unruffled, level-headed, unexcited, detached, aloof
    • Eager — keen, fervent, enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
    • Fear — fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, scare, awe, horror, panic, apprehension
    • Happy — pleased, contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic, jubilant, gay, tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
    • Hate — despise, loathe, detest, abhor, disfavor, dislike, disapprove, abominate
    • Love — like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship, appreciate, savor
    • Moody — temperamental, changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen, mopish, irritable, testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
    • Sad — miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heart-broken, unfortunate, poor, downhearted, sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal, discouraged, unhappy
    • Scared — afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked, fearful, unnerved, insecure, timid, shy, skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed, horrified, terrorized, shocked, petrified, haunted, timorous, shrinking, tremulous, stupefied, paralyzed, stunned, apprehensive
  • Negative
    • Awful — dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
    • Bad — evil, immoral, wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated, spoiled, tainted, harmful, injurious, unfavorable, defective, inferior, imperfect, substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate, unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant, cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous, scandalous, infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous, nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly, execrable
    • Crooked — bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
    • Dangerous — perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
    • Dark — shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal, sad
    • Dull — boring, tiring,, tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative, lifeless, dead, insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain, monotonous, humdrum, dreary
    • Fat — stout, corpulent, fleshy, beefy, paunchy, plump, full, rotund, tubby, pudgy, chubby, chunky, burly, bulky, elephantine
    • Gross — improper, rude, coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme, grievous, shameful, uncouth, obscene, low
    • Hurt — damage, harm, injure, wound, distress, afflict, pain
    • Lazy — indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
    • Predicament — quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, spot, scrape, jam
    • Trouble — distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness, pain, danger, peril, disaster, grief, misfortune, difficulty, concern, pains, inconvenience, exertion, effort
    • Ugly — hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible, unpleasant, monstrous, terrifying, gross, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, evil, repulsive, repugnant, gruesome
  • Positive
    • Amazing — incredible, unbelievable, improbable, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic, astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
    • Beautiful — pretty, lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid, magnificent, comely, fair, ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic, pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning, glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant, glowing, blooming, sparkling
    • Brave — courageous, fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous, audacious, bold, gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
    • Bright — shining, shiny, gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid, colorful, lustrous, luminous, incandescent, intelligent, knowing, quick-witted, smart, intellectual
    • Delicious — savory, delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable, delightful, enjoyable, toothsome, exquisite
    • Enjoy — appreciate, delight in, be pleased, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in, relish, devour, savor, like
    • Famous — well-known, renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious, distinguished, noted, notorious
    • Funny — humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
    • Good — excellent, fine, superior, wonderful, marvelous, qualified, suited, suitable, apt, proper, capable, generous, kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant, agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved, obedient, honorable, reliable, trustworthy, safe, favorable, profitable, advantageous, righteous, expedient, helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great, noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, sterling, superb, respectable, edifying
    • Great — noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable, powerful, much, mighty
    • Mischievous — prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
    • Neat — clean, orderly, tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, well-organized, super, desirable, spruce, shipshape, well-kept, shapely
    • Popular — well-liked, approved, accepted, favorite, celebrated, common, current
  • Talk / Speech
    • Answer — reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
    • Ask — question, inquire of, seek information from, put a question to, demand, request, expect, inquire, query, interrogate, examine, quiz
    • Cry — shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
    • Say/Tell — inform, notify, advise, relate, recount, narrate, explain, reveal, disclose, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, enlighten, instruct, insist, teach, train, direct, issue, remark, converse, speak, affirm, suppose, utter, negate, express, verbalize, voice, articulate, pronounce, deliver, convey, impart, assert, state, allege, mutter, mumble, whisper, sigh, exclaim, yell, sing, yelp, snarl, hiss, grunt, snort, roar, bellow, thunder, boom, scream, shriek, screech, squawk, whine, philosophize, stammer, stutter, lisp, drawl, jabber, protest, announce, swear, vow, content, assure, deny, dispute
    • Mean (Something) — add up to, affect, be important, be of value, be substantive, carry weight, connote, count, denote, express, imply, intend, involve, signify, spell, stand for, suggest, value, weigh in,
  • Unsorted
    • Somewhat — a little, sort of, kind of, a bit, relatively, slightly, moderately, to some extent / degree , reasonably, partially, more or less, not much
      rather, quite, fairly, by a long shot, by far, rather, significantly, well
    • Somehow — in a way, virtually, to a certain extent, in some measure, to some extent, to a certain degree, quasi , in a manner of speaking, effectively
      anyhow, anyway, anywise, by hook or by crook, another, howsoever, in any way, somehow or other, someway, by some means
    • Definite — certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
    • Fair — just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
    • Important — necessary, vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential, significant, primary, principal, considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-known
    • Interesting — fascinating, engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated, spirited, attractive, inviting, intriguing, provocative, thought-provoking, challenging, inspiring, involving, moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant, lively, racy, spicy, engrossing, absorbing, consuming, gripping, arresting, enthralling, spellbinding, curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
    • Part — portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
    • Place — space, area, spot, plot, region, location, situation, position, residence, dwelling, set, site, station, status, state

 

This has been copied/taken from: http://www.smart-words.org/list-of-synonyms/

Homophones

This is a list of common homophones.

1. accessary, accessory 111. dew, due
2. ad, add 112. die, dye
3. ail, ale 113. discreet, discrete
4. air, heir 114. doe, doh, dough
5. aisle, I’ll, isle 115. done, dun
6. all, awl 116. douse, dowse
7. allowed, aloud 117. draft, draught
8. alms, arms 118. dual, duel
9. altar, alter 119. earn, urn
10. arc, ark 120. eery, eyrie
11. aren’t, aunt 121. ewe, yew, you
12. ate, eight 122. faint, feint
13. auger, augur 123. fah, far
14. auk, orc 124. fair, fare
15. aural, oral 125. farther, father
16. away, aweigh 126. fate, fête
17. awe, oar, or, ore 127. faun, fawn
18. axel, axle 128. fay, fey
19. aye, eye, I 129. faze, phase
20. bail, bale 130. feat, feet
21. bait, bate 131. ferrule, ferule
22. baize, bays 132. few, phew
23. bald, bawled 133. fie, phi
24. ball, bawl 134. file, phial
25. band, banned 135. find, fined
26. bard, barred 136. fir, fur
27. bare, bear 137. fizz, phiz
28. bark, barque 138. flair, flare
29. baron, barren 139. flaw, floor
30. base, bass 140. flea, flee
31. bay, bey 141. flex, flecks
32. bazaar, bizarre 142. flew, flu, flue
33. be, bee 143. floe, flow
34. beach, beech 144. flour, flower
35. bean, been 145. foaled, fold
36. beat, beet 146. for, fore, four
37. beau, bow 147. foreword, forward
38. beer, bier 148. fort, fought
39. bel, bell, belle 149. forth, fourth
40. berry, bury 150. foul, fowl
41. berth, birth 151. franc, frank
42. bight, bite, byte 152. freeze, frieze
43. billed, build 153. friar, fryer
44. bitten, bittern 154. furs, furze
45. blew, blue 155. gait, gate
46. bloc, block 156. galipot, gallipot
47. boar, bore 157. gallop, galop
48. board, bored 158. gamble, gambol
49. boarder, border 159. gays, gaze
50. bold, bowled 160. genes, jeans
51. boos, booze 161. gild, guild
52. born, borne 162. gilt, guilt
53. bough, bow 163. giro, gyro
54. boy, buoy 164. gnaw, nor
55. brae, bray 165. gneiss, nice
56. braid, brayed 166. gorilla, guerilla
57. braise, brays, braze 167. grate, great
58. brake, break 168. greave, grieve
59. bread, bred 169. greys, graze
60. brews, bruise 170. grisly, grizzly
61. bridal, bridle 171. groan, grown
62. broach, brooch 172. guessed, guest
63. bur, burr 173. hail, hale
64. but, butt 174. hair, hare
65. buy, by, bye 175. hall, haul
66. buyer, byre 176. hangar, hanger
67. calendar, calender 177. hart, heart
68. call, caul 178. haw, hoar, whore
69. canvas, canvass 179. hay, hey
70. cast, caste 180. heal, heel, he’ll
71. caster, castor 181. hear, here
72. caught, court 182. heard, herd
73. caw, core, corps 183. he’d, heed
74. cede, seed 184. heroin, heroine
75. ceiling, sealing 185. hew, hue
76. cell, sell 186. hi, high
77. censer, censor, sensor 187. higher, hire
78. cent, scent, sent 188. him, hymn
79. cereal, serial 189. ho, hoe
80. cheap, cheep 190. hoard, horde
81. check, cheque 191. hoarse, horse
82. choir, quire 192. holey, holy, wholly
83. chord, cord 193. hour, our
84. cite, sight, site 194. idle, idol
85. clack, claque 195. in, inn
86. clew, clue 196. indict, indite
87. climb, clime 197. it’s, its
88. close, cloze 198. jewel, joule
89. coal, kohl 199. key, quay
90. coarse, course 200. knave, nave
91. coign, coin 201. knead, need
92. colonel, kernel 202. knew, new
93. complacent, complaisant 203. knight, night
94. complement, compliment 204. knit, nit
95. coo, coup 205. knob, nob
96. cops, copse 206. knock, nock
97. council, counsel 207. knot, not
98. cousin, cozen 208. know, no
99. creak, creek 209. knows, nose
100. crews, cruise 210. laager, lager
101. cue, kyu, queue 211. lac, lack
102. curb, kerb 212. lade, laid
103. currant, current 213. lain, lane
104. cymbol, symbol 214. lam, lamb
105. dam, damn 215. laps, lapse
106. days, daze 216. larva, lava
107. dear, deer 217. lase, laze
108. descent, dissent 218. law, lore
109. desert, dessert 219. lay, ley
110. deviser, divisor 220. lea, lee
221. leach, leech 331. rouse, rows
222. lead, led 332. rung, wrung
223. leak, leek 333. rye, wry
224. lean, lien 334. saver, savour
225. lessen, lesson 335. spade, spayed
226. levee, levy 336. sale, sail
227. liar, lyre 337. sane, seine
228. licence, license 338. satire, satyr
229. licker, liquor 339. sauce, source
230. lie, lye 340. saw, soar, sore
231. lieu, loo 341. scene, seen
232. links, lynx 342. scull, skull
233. lo, low 343. sea, see
234. load, lode 344. seam, seem
235. loan, lone 345. sear, seer, sere
236. locks, lox 346. seas, sees, seize
237. loop, loupe 347. sew, so, sow
238. loot, lute 348. shake, sheikh
239. made, maid 349. shear, sheer
240. mail, male 350. shoe, shoo
241. main, mane 351. sic, sick
242. maize, maze 352. side, sighed
243. mall, maul 353. sign, sine
244. manna, manner 354. sink, synch
245. mantel, mantle 355. slay, sleigh
246. mare, mayor 356. sloe, slow
247. mark, marque 357. sole, soul
248. marshal, martial 358. some, sum
249. marten, martin 359. son, sun
250. mask, masque 360. sort, sought
251. maw, more 361. spa, spar
252. me, mi 362. staid, stayed
253. mean, mien 363. stair, stare
254. meat, meet, mete 364. stake, steak
255. medal, meddle 365. stalk, stork
256. metal, mettle 366. stationary, stationery
257. meter, metre 367. steal, steel
258. might, mite 368. stile, style
259. miner, minor, mynah 369. storey, story
260. mind, mined 370. straight, strait
261. missed, mist 371. sweet, suite
262. moat, mote 372. swat, swot
263. mode, mowed 373. tacks, tax
264. moor, more 374. tale, tail
265. moose, mousse 375. talk, torque
266. morning, mourning 376. tare, tear
267. muscle, mussel 377. taught, taut, tort
268. naval, navel 378. te, tea, tee
269. nay, neigh 379. team, teem
270. nigh, nye 380. tear, tier
271. none, nun 381. teas, tease
272. od, odd 382. terce, terse
273. ode, owed 383. tern, turn
274. oh, owe 384. there, their, they’re
275. one, won 385. threw, through
276. packed, pact 386. throes, throws
277. packs, pax 387. throne, thrown
278. pail, pale 388. thyme, time
279. pain, pane 389. tic, tick
280. pair, pare, pear 390. tide, tied
281. palate, palette, pallet 391. tire, tyre
282. pascal, paschal 392. to, too, two
283. paten, patten, pattern 393. toad, toed, towed
284. pause, paws, pores, pours 394. told, tolled
285. pawn, porn 395. tole, toll
286. pea, pee 396. ton, tun
287. peace, piece 397. tor, tore
288. peak, peek, peke, pique 398. tough, tuff
289. peal, peel 399. troop, troupe
290. pearl, purl 400. tuba, tuber
291. pedal, peddle 401. vain, vane, vein
292. peer, pier 402. vale, veil
293. pi, pie 403. vial, vile
294. pica, pika 404. wail, wale, whale
295. place, plaice 405. wain, wane
296. plain, plane 406. waist, waste
297. pleas, please 407. wait, weight
298. plum, plumb 408. waive, wave
299. pole, poll 409. wall, waul
300. poof, pouffe 410. war, wore
301. practice, practise 411. ware, wear, where
302. praise, prays, preys 412. warn, worn
303. principal, principle 413. wart, wort
304. profit, prophet 414. watt, what
305. quarts, quartz 415. wax, whacks
306. quean, queen 416. way, weigh, whey
307. rain, reign, rein 417. we, wee, whee
308. raise, rays, raze 418. weak, week
309. rap, wrap 419. we’d, weed
310. raw, roar 420. weal, we’ll, wheel
311. read, reed 421. wean, ween
312. read, red 422. weather, whether
313. real, reel 423. weaver, weever
314. reek, wreak 424. weir, we’re
315. rest, wrest 425. were, whirr
316. retch, wretch 426. wet, whet
317. review, revue 427. wheald, wheeled
318. rheum, room 428. which, witch
319. right, rite, wright, write 429. whig, wig
320. ring, wring 430. while, wile
321. road, rode 431. whine, wine
322. roe, row 432. whirl, whorl
323. role, roll 433. whirled, world
324. roo, roux, rue 434. whit, wit
325. rood, rude 435. white, wight
326. root, route 436. who’s, whose
327. rose, rows 437. woe, whoa
328. rota, rotor 438. wood, would
329. rote, wrote 439. yaw, yore, your, you’re
330. rough, ruff 440. yoke, yolk
441. you’ll, yule

 

Tone Words

300 Words To Describe An Author’s Tone

What is tone?

Tone refers to an author’s use of words and writing style to convey his or her attitude
towards a topic. Tone is often defined as what the author feels or their attitude toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject.

What the reader feels is the mood.

Tone = Attitude. Voice = Personality.

Tone      Meaning
Abashed ashamed or embarrassed;
Absurd illogical; ridiculous; silly; implausible; foolish
accusatory charging of wrong doing
Accusatory suggesting someone has done something wrong, complaining
Acerbic sharp; forthright; biting; hurtful; abrasive; severe
Admiring approving; think highly of; respectful; praising
Affectionate  showing, indicating, or
Aggressive hostile; determined; forceful; argumentative
Aggrieved indignant; annoyed; offended; disgruntled
Ambiguous  open tor having several
Ambivalent  uncertainty or fluctuation, esp.
Ambivalent having mixed feelings; uncertain; in a dilemma; undecided
Amused  pleasurably entertained, occupied,
Amused entertained; diverted; pleased
Angry incensed or enraged; threatening or menacing
Animated full of life or excitement; lively; spirited; impassioned; vibrant
Annoyed  Tcause slight irritation to
Antagonistic  acting in opposition; opposing,
Anxious  full of mental distress or uneasiness
Apathetic  having or showing little or no
apathetic indifferent due to lack of energy or concern
Apathetic showing little interest; lacking concern; indifferent; unemotional
Apologetic  containing an apology or excuse
Apologetic full of regret; repentant; remorseful; acknowledging failure
Appreciative  feeling or expressive of
Appreciative grateful; thankful; showing pleasure; enthusiastic
Apprehensive  uneasy or fearful about
Approving  tspeak or think favorably of;
Ardent  characterized by intense feeling;
Ardent enthusiastic; passionate
Arrogant  making claims or pretensions to
Arrogant pompous; disdainful; overbearing; condescending; vain; scoffing
Assertive self-confident; strong-willed; authoritative; insistent
Audacious  extremely bold or daring;
Authoritarian  having an air of authority;
awe solemn wonder
Awestruck amazed, filled with wonder/awe; reverential
Baffled  tconfuse, bewilder, or perplex
Bantering  Good-humored, playful
Belligerent  warlike; given twaging war
Belligerent hostile; aggressive; combatant
Bemused  bewildered or confused/ lost in
Benevolent  characterized by or expressing
Benevolent sympathetic; tolerant; generous; caring; well meaning
Bewildered  completely puzzled or confused;
bhorring  tregard with extreme
Biting  nipping; smarting; keen/ cutting;
Bitter  having a harsh, disagreeably acrid
Bitter angry; acrimonious; antagonistic; spiteful; nasty
bitter exhibiting strong animosity as a result of pain or grief
Blithe  joyous, merry, or gay in disposition;
Blunt  abrupt in address or manner/ slow in
Bold  not hesitating or fearful in the face of
Brisk  quick and active; lively/ sharp and
Brusque  abrupt in manner; blunt; rough
bstruse  difficult tunderstand
bsurd  ridiculous; silly
Burlesque  an artistic composition, esp.
Callous cruel disregard; unfeeling; uncaring; indifferent; ruthless
callous unfeeling, insensitive to feelings of others
Calm  without rough motion; still or nearly
Candid  frank; outspoken; open and sincere/
Candid truthful, straightforward; honest; unreserved
Capricious  flighty; led by whims; erratic
Casual  without definite or serious intention;
Caustic  making biting, corrosive comments
caustic intense use of sarcasm; stinging, biting
Caustic making biting, corrosive comments; critical
Cautionary gives warning; raises awareness; reminding
ccusing  tcharge with the fault, offense, or
Celebratory  seeming or tending tbe
Celebratory praising; pay tribute to; glorify; honour
Censorious  severely critical; faultfinding
cerbic  harsh or severe, as of temper or
Ceremonial  of, pertaining to, or
Chatty informal; lively; conversational; familiar
Cheerful  characterized by or expressive of
Cheery  in good spirits
Choleric  extremely irritable or easily
choleric hot tempered, easily angered
Clinical  concerned with or based on actual
Colloquial  characteristic of or appropriate
Colloquial familiar; everyday language; informal; colloquial; casual
Comforting  Tsoothe in time of affliction or
Comic humorous; witty; entertaining; diverting
Commanding  appreciably superior or
Compassionate  having or showing
Compassionate sympathetic; empathetic; warm-hearted; tolerant; kind
Complex  characterized by a very
Complex having many varying characteristics; complicated
Compliant agree or obey rules; acquiescent; flexible; submissive
Complicated  composed of elaborately
Complimentary  of the nature of, conveying,
Conceited  having an excessively favorable
Concerned  interested or affected/ troubled
Concerned worried; anxious; apprehensive
Conciliatory  Tovercome the distrust or
Conciliatory intended tplacate or pacify; appeasing
Condemnatory  Texpress strong
Condescending  showing or implying a
Condescending stooping tthe level of one’s inferiors; patronising
condescension; condescending a feeling of superiority
Confident  having strong belief or full
Confused  tperplex or bewilder/ tmake
Confused unable tthink clearly; bewildered; vague
contemplative studying, thinking, reflecting on an issue
Contemptuous  showing or expressing
Contemptuous showing contempt; scornful; insolent; mocking
contemptuous showing or feeling that something is worthless or lacks respect
Contented  Desiring nmore than what one
Contentious  tending targument or strife;
conventional lacking spontaneity, originality, and individuality
Conversational  The spoken exchange of
Critical  inclined tfind fault or tjudge with
critical finding fault
Critical finding fault; disapproving; scathing; criticizing
Cruel causing pain and suffering; unkind; spiteful; severe
Curious wanting tfind out more; inquisitive; questioning
Curt  rudely brief in speech or abrupt in
Cynical  scornful of the motives or virtues of
cynical questions the basic sincerity and goodness of people
Cynical scornful of motives/virtues of others; mocking; sneering
Defensive defending a position; shielding; guarding; watchful
Defiant obstinate; argumentative; defiant; contentious
Demanding  requiring or claiming more than
Demeaning disrespectful; undignified
Depressed  sad and gloomy; dejected;
Depressing sad, melancholic; discouraging; pessimistic
Derisive  characterized by or expressing
derisive ridiculing, mocking
Derisive snide; sarcastic; mocking; dismissive; scornful
Despairing  Tbe overcome by a sense of
Desperate  reckless or dangerous because of
Detached  impartial or objective;
Detached aloof; objective; unfeeling; distant
Diabolic  having the qualities of a devil;
Didactic  intended for instruction; instructive
didactic author attempts to educate or instruct the reader
Diffident  lacking confidence in one’s own
Dignified serious; respectful; formal; proper
Diplomatic tactful; subtle; sensitive; thoughtful
Direct  proceeding in a straight line or by the
Direct straightforward; honest
Disappointed  depressed or discouraged by
Disappointed discouraged; unhappy because something has gone wrong
Disapproving displeased; critical; condemnatory
Disbelieving  thave nbelief in; refuse or
Disdainful  expressing extreme contempt
disdainful scornful
Disgusted  Texcite nausea or loathing in;
Disheartening discouraging; demoralising; undermining; depressing
Disparaging dismissive; critical; scornful
Dispassionate impartial; indifferent; unsentimental; cold; unsympathetic
Disrespectful  Having or exhibiting a lack of
Distressing heart-breaking; sad; troubling
Disturbed  marked by symptoms of mental
dmiring  tregard with wonder, pleasure,
dmonishing  cautioning, advising, or
Docile compliant; submissive; deferential; accommodating
Dogmatic  asserting opinions in a doctrinaire
Domineering  overbearing; tyrannical
doring  tregard with the utmost esteem,
Doubtful  of uncertain outcome or result
Dramatic  of or pertaining tthe drama/
Dreary  causing sadness or gloom./ dull;
Dubious  wavering or hesitating in
Earnest  serious in intention, purpose, or
earnest intense, a sincere state of mind
Earnest showing deep sincerity or feeling; serious
Ebullient  overflowing with fervor,
Ecstatic  subject tor in a state of
Effusive  unduly demonstrative; lacking
Egotistical  given ttalking about
Egotistical self-absorbed; selfish; conceited; boastful
Elated  very happy or proud; jubilant; in
Elegiac  expressing sorrow or
Elevated  exalted or noble; lofty/ exalted
Eloquent  having or exercising the power
Embarrassed  Tcause tfeel selfconscious
Empathetic  showing empathy or ready
Empathetic understanding; kind; sensitive
Encouraging  tinspire with courage,
Encouraging optimistic; supportive
Enthusiastic  having or showing great
Enthusiastic excited; energetic
Erudite  characterized by great knowledge;
erudite learned, polished, scholarly
Eulogistic  Tpraise highly in speech or
Euphoric  a feeling of happiness,
Evasive  deliberately vague or
Evasive ambiguous; cryptic; unclear
Excited emotionally aroused; stirred
Exhilarated  tenliven; invigorate;
Exhortatory  advising, urging, or
Expectant  marked by eager anticipation
Exuberant  effusively and almost
Facetious  not meant tbe taken seriously
Facetious inappropriate; flippant
Factual  of or pertaining tfacts;
Familiar  commonly or generally known
Fanciful  characterized by or showing
fanciful using the imagination
Farcical  ludicrous; absurd; mocking;
Farcical ludicrous; absurd; mocking; humorous and highly improbable
Fatalistic  the acceptance of all things
Fearful  feeling fear, dread,
Fervent  having or showing great warmth
Flippant  frivolously disrespectful,
Flippant superficial; glib; shallow; thoughtless; frivolous
Forceful  powerful
Forceful powerful; energetic; confident; assertive
Foreboding  a strong inner feeling or
Formal  stiff; using textbook style;
Formal respectful; stilted; factual; following accepted styles/rules
Forthright  going straight tthe point;
forthright directly frank without hesitation
Frank honest; direct; plain; matter-of-fact
Frantic  desperate or wild with
Frightened  Tfill with fear; alarm
Frivolous  characterized by lack of
Frustrated  disappointed; thwarted
Frustrated annoyed; discouraged
Furious  full of fury, violent passion, or
Gentle  kind; considerate; mild; soft
Gentle kind; considerate; mild; soft
Ghoulish  strangely diabolical or cruel;
Ghoulish delighting in the revolting or the loathsome
Giddy  frivolous and lighthearted;
gloomy darkness, sadness, rejection
Grim serious; gloomy; depressing; lacking humour;macabre
Gullible naïve; innocent; ignorant
Hard unfeeling; hard-hearted; unyielding
haughty proud and vain to the point of arrogance
Humble deferential; modest
Humorous amusing; entertaining; playful
Hypercritical unreasonably critical; hair splitting; nitpicking
Impartial unbiased; neutral; objective
Impassioned filled with emotion; ardent
Imploring pleading; begging
Impressionable trusting; child-like
Inane silly; foolish; stupid; nonsensical
Incensed enraged
Incredulous disbelieving; unconvinced; questioning; suspicious
Indignant annoyed; angry; dissatisfied
indignant marked by anger aroused by injustice
Informative instructive; factual; educational
Inspirational encouraging; reassuring
Intense earnest; passionate; concentrated; deeply felt
Intimate familiar; informal; confidential; confessional
intimate very familiar
Ironic the opposite of what is meant
Irreverent lacking respect for things that are generally taken seriously
Jaded bored; having had tomuch of the same thing; lack enthusiasm
jovial happy
Joyful positive; optimistic; cheerful; elated
judgmental authoritative and often having critical opinions
Judgmental critical; finding fault; disparaging
Laudatory praising; recommending
Light-Hearted carefree; relaxed; chatty; humorous
Loving affectionate; showing intense, deep concern
lyrical expressing a poet’s inner feelings; emotional; full of images; song
Macabre gruesome; horrifying; frightening
Malicious desiring tharm others or tsee others suffer; ill-willed; spiteful
malicious purposely hurtful
matter of fact accepting of conditions
Mean-Spirited inconsiderate; unsympathetic
Mocking scornful; ridiculing; making fun of someone
mocking treating with contempt or ridicule
morose gloomy, sullen, surly, despondent
Mourning grieving; lamenting; woeful
Naïve innocent; unsophisticated; immature
Narcissistic self-admiring; selfish; boastful; self-pitying
Nasty unpleasant; unkind; disagreeable; abusive
Negative unhappy, pessimistic
Nostalgic thinking about the past; wishing for something from the past
objective an unbiased view
Objective without prejudice; without discrimination; fair; based on fact
Obsequious overly obedient and/or submissive; fawning; grovelling
obsequious polite and obedient in order to gain something
optimistic hopeful, cheerful
Optimistic hopeful; cheerful
Outraged angered and resentful; furious; extremely angered
Outspoken frank; candid; spoken without reserve
Pathetic expressing pity, sympathy, tenderness
Patronising condescending; scornful; pompous
patronizing air of condescension
Pensive reflective; introspective; philosophical; contemplative
Persuasive convincing; eloquent; influential; plausible
Pessimistic seeing the negative side of things
pessimistic seeing the worst side of things; no hope
Philosophical theoretical; analytical; rational; logical
Playful full of fun and good spirits; humorous; jesting
Pragmatic realistic; sensible
Pretentious affected; artificial; grandiose; rhetorical; flashy
quizzical odd, eccentric, amusing
reflective illustrating innermost thoughts and emotions
Regretful apologetic; remorseful
Resentful aggrieved; offended; displeased; bitter
Resigned accepting; unhappy
Restrained controlled; quiet; unemotional
Reverent showing deep respect and esteem
reverent treating a subject with honor and respect
ribald offensive in speech or gesture
ridiculing slightly contemptuous banter; making fun of
Righteous morally right and just; guiltless; pious; god-fearing
sanguineous optimistic, cheerful
Sarcastic scornful; mocking; ridiculing
sarcastic sneering, caustic
sardonic scornfully and bitterly sarcastic
satiric ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point, teach
Satirical making fun tshow a weakness; ridiculing; derisive
Scathing critical; stinging; unsparing; harsh
Sceptical disbelieving; unconvinced; doubting
Scornful expressing contempt or derision; scathing; dismissive
Sensationalistic provocative; inaccurate; distasteful
Sentimental thinking about feelings, especially when remembering the past
Sincere honest; truthful; earnest
sincere without deceit or pretense; genuine
solemn deeply earnest, tending toward sad reflection
Solemn not funny; in earnest; serious
Subjective prejudiced; biased
Submissive compliant; passive; accommodating; obedient
Sulking bad-tempered; grumpy; resentful; sullen
Sympathetic compassionate; understanding of how someone feels
Thoughtful reflective; serious; absorbed
Tolerant open-minded; charitable; patient; sympathetic; lenient
Tragic disastrous; calamitous
Unassuming modest; self-effacing; restrained
Uneasy worried; uncomfortable; edgy; nervous
Urgent insistent; saying something must be done soon
Vindictive vengeful; spiteful; bitter; unforgiving
Virtuous lawful; righteous; moral; upstanding
whimsical odd, strange, fantastic; fun
Whimsical quaint; playful; mischievous; offbeat
Witty clever; quick-witted; entertaining
Wonder awe-struck; admiring; fascinating
World-Weary bored; cynical; tired
Worried anxious; stressed; fearful
Wretched miserable; despairing; sorrowful; distressed


The mechanics of tone
Tone is conveyed through diction (choice and use of words and phrases), viewpoint, syntax (grammar; how you put words and phrases together), and level of formality. It is the way you express yourself in speech or writing.


How do you find the correct tone?
You can usually find a tone by asking these three questions:

1. Why am I writing this?
2. Who is my intended audience?
3. What do I want the reader to learn, understand, or think about?

Informal writing, your tone should be clear, concise, confident, and courteous. The writing level should be sophisticated, but not pretentious.

In creative writing, your tone is more subjective, but you should always aim to
communicate clearly.

Genre sometimes determines the tone.

 

Evaluation language

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

AQA Paper 1 – Question 4 requires you to evaluate an extract. This means at the top band/level your exam board wants you to:

Shows perceptive and detailed evaluation:

  • Evaluates critically and in detail the effect(s) on the reader
  • Shows perceptive understanding of writer’s methods
  • Selects a judicious range of textual detail
  • Develops a convincing and critical response to the focus of the statement

This means you will need to use the following language:

Evaluative words and phrases

Adjectives

  • Effective.
  • Successful.
  • Clear.
  • Skilful.
  • Convincing.
  • Engaging.
  • Thought-provoking.

e.g. “The poet’s skilful use of metaphor…”

Adverbs

  • Effectively.
  • Successfully.
  • Clearly.
  • Skilfully.
  • Convincingly.

e.g. “The author clearly illustrates that…”

Verbs

  • Conveys.
  • Suggests.
  • Emphasises.
  • Demonstrates.
  • Illustrates.
  • Makes it clear.
  • Makes it apparent.
  • Allows the reader/audience to understand…

e.g. “The playwright’s effective use of dialogue successfully demonstrates how…

Further evaluative language:

  • Inspiring
  • Perceptive
  • Powerful
  • Striking
  • Reflective
  • Imaginative
  • Profound
  • Challenging
  • Perplexing
  • Comprehensive
  • Valuable
  • Relevant
  • Thorough

Eg “The author challenges ….”

 

Thank you for reading!

“All The Critics Love U In New York”

It’s time 4 a new direction

Prince – All The Critics Love U In New York – 1999

 

On Tuesday 17th October my amazing Headteacher sent me to CamSTAR* Conference 2017.  I picked two sessions that put me out of my comfort zone:

  1. From ‘LOTS’ to ‘HOTS’ – Scaffolding students to higher order thinking skills and better outcomes. Emma Wilkinson, Director of Studies/History teacher, CATS Canterbury; and Louisa Horner, T&L Coordinator, CD Humanities History and Sociology teacher.
  2. DiDiAC – TalkWall: Developing a dialogic classroom. Catherine Davis, Ass Headteacher, Safron Walden Country High School. (I won’t be discussing this session in this blog, hopefully when I use it in my class I will blog then).

 

If anyone reads my posts regularly you’ll know I dislike anything that isn’t silent writing! It’s easy to criticise an idea/activity without really buying into it. Everyone has an opinion on classroom teaching!

So, for me, the first session was a must. They discussed everything that makes my eyes twitch; flipped learning, group work and activities. Guess what? I think they’ve converted me! I’ve come to realise perhaps my dislike for these types of activities could just be that I’ve been doing them wrong all this time! And the best bit – they’re all differentiated without you doing anything!

1.Hexagons. A series of hexagons are used filled with various pieces of information. The students then use the hexagons to use as a base for a critical analysis essay. Students are given blank hexagons to make secure links.  Each student or group arrange their hexagons differently and make links to other sources or blanks as they see fit.

Why do I like this? You can give students basic scaffolding, however, they add blanks to complete links and main structure. Ensuring their essay is their own work based on their understanding.

 

2. Students are given a grid of 20 facts. Very detailed. They then have to arrange the 20 facts onto a graph deciding which is the most important at different points.

How can I use this? In English, we study novels and one thing students can find hard is the structure of a story; how has an author created an overall effect. So, for example in A Christmas Carol, I will give my student 5 key events in each stave, then will then mark their graph at the bottom, and along the Y-axis they can add; characters, themes, context, etc in different colours and mark the importance of each at different parts of a story. At the end, they have a clear visual representation of the story. I will then get my students to finish this off with a paragraph evaluating their choices.

In case you were wondering about a graph being confusing, I was thinking like this:

Capture

3. A stretch and challenge activity. Again students are given a sheet with 3 facts, in the blank box students need to compare the facts to their own ideas; do they agree with the evidence? If not, what are they basing their argument on? Students have to show an analytical approach. This makes students engage with critical arguments and consider other aspects.

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4. Text tiles. This is very similar to the hexagons and are mostly used for flipped learning homework (students need to research a concept/idea, eg read a piece of text, research or watch a video, before the next lesson).  They for example then need to prioritise each tile – which is the most important to the least important. Then evaluate, making a judgement with an exam style question and finally transfer to a written piece of work.

 

5. Concept task – I’ve already used this one with my A level class. It’s fairly self-explanatory, but I got my students to write an Alevel concept eg Grice’s Maxims in the centre of a page, then they just work their way around the 5 questions answering each one to help them understand. This worked really well. Loved it!

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6. Students are given large sheets of paper and in different colours annotate as much as they know about several given topics. Once they can see all the information around them they begin to see patterns, that they can’t often see.

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7. Students are given blank grids and fill in with as much information that they know/understand on a given topic, split into subheadings. When finished they then have to arrange and discuss their cards in different orders according to the 2nd resource. You can get students to order the ideas in a different order according to different questions or ideas, does this change their perception of a concept? In English, their questions could easily be adapted to a book/poem students are studying.

8. Students are given an exam style question and then a scaffolded resource to help them develop their critical analysis skills. Students work through the steps, with modelled examples to help them understand how they need to bring all the information together.

 

Why I liked these so much was the school has seen a rise in the quality of essays written by their students and their results have gone up in their subject. They don’t use these as a 10-minute filler in a lesson. These are planned and created to have a purpose and ultimately help students become analytical in their thinking and writing ability. The activities are used over a period of several lessons, building up to a full written analytical essay.

It’s easy to criticise an idea, but what I can’t argue with is their results have increased because they are writing better critical essays. I suppose (maybe) it depends on how much you’re willing to buy into it.

I will be using these myself as the year progresses.  All of the above can be transferred to other subjects easily.

Thank you for reading!

 

“Damned if I Do”

Then scream at me for not giving you more time, more time

Damned if I do, damned if I don’t

Prince – “Damned if I Do”  – Emancipation

 

“Damned if I do”, I think that’s how many teachers feel about trying new things in their classroom. From September, below are a few changes I will “trial” in the hope they lead to better progress.

As an English teacher, our marking workload can be large; everything we mark is ‘extended writing’ and most of us spend hours of our life reading student work. I hope I am correct also in assuming no teacher minds marking, it’s one of the most important ways we can really assess student understanding. Only there’s a “but”, and it’s that “but” that’s had me thinking for a long time about the progress made by a student after I mark their work.

My current system requires me to mark a piece of extended writing and provide individual feedback which includes two comments; what the student did well (beyond the words good) and something they can do to improve their work. The issue I have with this is students don’t make the progress I hope for (rapid or not). How does a student get to year 11 and still not understand how to write an analytical paragraph? Every English teacher has had students using them since year7. Similar to capital letters and full stops, there isn’t a primary school that doesn’t teach students to use them – so why don’t they?

I feel our system, which is used in many schools, isn’t as effective as it could be, it only “appears” to work/show progress.

I spoke at length with Lyndsey Caldwell (@MsCaldwell1) and she recommended I read “Bringing Words To Life”. If you haven’t, I strongly advise you do, alongside “Reading Reconsidered”. I then went to my Head and asked if I could try something different with a group to see if tweaking our systems could lead to better progress. This is what I’ve come up with:

1) Knowledge Organisers

I’ve looked at the unit I’m teaching for the next 6 weeks and created a knowledge organiser (fancy word for a glossary) which has terms students will need to learn. Joe Kirby (

I’ve now created one for the unit my students are learning. It’s a combination of subject terminology, command words and vocabulary.  Students will have to memorise the words/spellings and definitions for homework.

2) Anthologies

Standing at a photocopier seems to be a permanent place for an English Teacher! We copy resources, guillotine and then get students to glue into their books which I don’t mind, what I do mind is when I mark a book and all I find on my perfectly cut extract one brightly highlighted word and often NO annotations as to why a student thinks it’s worthy of being in bright yellow!

I’ve put together a set of anthologies for each unit I teach containing all the extracts (or poems) etc that I intend to teach for the 6 weeks.

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My fantastic resources dpt have made them up into A3 booklets for me. However, I don’t want students annotating in the anthologies (not at KS3).  The hope here is students will learn how to “select” relevant or better word/phrase/technique(s) and copy into their books and annotate in their book. I want to see students picking better words and analysing them using a dictionary or a thesaurus. Also, if I teach 3 year 7 classes I only have to photocopy a resource book once, as opposed to my perfectly cut resource three times, so hopefully save money/time there.

When students arrive to lesson I will hand them the anthology and they can all read the extract (in silence/quietly). I hope this works on several levels; calms students, gives me time to hand out books/take register and students can see the text in advance and familiarise themselves with the text we will use that lesson.

3) 5-a-Day

For students to answer their end of term assessment (say in literature) they need to be able to recall a large amount of information about a book eg themes, quotes, context etc. It’s a lot to ask students to do when they possibly read part of a text 20 lessons ago. To combat this I’ve created a set of five questions a day inspired by @Corbettmaths read hereYou can also read more on 5-a-day from the very talented Rebecca Foster (@TLPMsF) who’s blogged on it here specifically relating to English.

The only difference I’ve made is mine will appear on a ppt rather than a resource (to save on resources/time). I’ve created 1 for every lesson of the unit and covers all words/terms used in my knowledge organiser (1). This will hopefully help embed new vocabulary and terms.

4) PA/Self Assessment

If I’m honest, I’ve never had any real faith in peer or self-assessment. I must be rubbish at teaching it because my students are just not very good at it. I do lessons on it, I think I am teaching them how to do it, yet after a piece of writing if I ask “is it good?” I will be met with “no idea”. If they peer assess, students very rarely give a comment that would actually improve another student’s work. And yes I have made them watch Austin’s Butterfly video (if you’ve never seen it, check it out on youtube).

This year I am changing how I lead on PA.

  1. I’ve built PA/Self-Assessment into every 4th lesson on my SOW
  2. I’ve made up a “How to write an analytical paragraph” booklet (see below).  which is a differentiated step by step guide showing the process from the extract, to a finished example.
  3. DIRT (Dedicated improvement reflection time) has been built into the second half of the 4th lesson.
  4. Student feedback is being changed to Whole class feedback.

 

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I want students to become better at understanding why or where they went wrong on a piece of writing. I hope a clear step by step process will help.

After a lovely twitter exchange with David Jones (@ewenfields), he pointed me in the direction of the two following blogs and the way his school, Meols Cop High School, have had led research projects in this area Learning and Teaching Blog and Marking and Feedback 1. I then came up with the following:

 

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These will be printed back/back and I will keep these and hand out when needed. The front has basic checks for students to go through before they hand work back to me. If, for example, a student doesn’t use capital letters I will give them extra support (in the form of a worksheet). I hope this ensures a little more care with basic SPaG errors.

On the back I’ve split the different elements of what I look for in an analytical paragraph and come up with a simple tick for good/relevant and cross for needs improving and “code” eg

  • CF – clear focus – Make a point/express an opinion relevant to answering the question

The explicit definitions will help students understand/remember what I expect from “clear focus”.   I’ve grouped the marking codes into a simple hierarchy.

The final step is the whole class feedback. You may ask why am I changing this if it’s the whole school! A while back as part of CPD all staff were asked to take a book with (what we considered) outstanding marking to a room and all staff wandered around looking at them. I noticed one of my department’s and couldn’t resist reading. The teacher had given a clear WWW and clear EBI and the student (top set) had improved their work, but what I noticed was the teacher had said something (along the lines) go back and analyse one word in detail eg stabbed. What had the top set student done? Had they gone back and re-read the extract, selected a relevant word and analysed to a high standard? No, they analysed the word their teacher directed them to “stabbed”. It struck me then – where’s the learning?

I’ve adapted our school feedback sheet to remove individual comments and I will now give ONE whole class WWW and ONE EBI. Students have had their individual feedback in coded comments down the margin. The EBI will be a ‘develop and stretch’ question that they will need to incorporate into their improved response.

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I want students to use the analytical paragraph A3 guide, and the DIRT sheet with the marking codes to improve their work. They will write the code they have chosen to improve on the feedback sheet.

To consolidate learning students will use the code they decided to improve their focus for their next piece of writing (say two weeks later).  They just need to flick back and write the code they chose to improve at the top of the new piece of extended writing and then highlight where they feel they have met this again on a new piece of work. I hope this will really help students master a skill. Also, if I or they flick through their writing it will be very clear which aspects they keep missing. If it’s several then we can sit and have a conversation about why they’re finding it difficult to remember.

 

What I am trying to achieve is making my students understand for themselves where they went wrong or where they could pick marks up without me explicitly directing them to it. I hope this will lead to better progress if they can begin to really understand what to improve and this independence will help them in exams when I’m not there!

This is all a trial/project. I will do a follow-up blog around Christmas.

Thank you for reading.

“Deconstruction”

With no more fruit 2 bear from its trees,

the Haze was finally broken

Prince  – “Deconstruction” – The Rainbow Children

 

Examiner Top Tips

Once the August result haze leaves English teachers up and down the country, what’s better than sitting down and working out what we did well, or not so well?

One such day I sat looking at our data and I chatted at length with my friend Becky Wood (@shadylady222). She had already begun deconstructing the AQA Examiner Reports for both language papers.

What Becky did, I think was pretty clever, she went through the reports and created an ‘at a glance’ top tips, and the key positive/negative points from the GCSE examiners report. These can then be used to inform teaching or as reminders for revision. I then offered to help by completing all matching resources for both literature papers/reports,

Becky does AQA (you can find them on her timeline on twitter).

I’ve created the Edexcel ones here:

Edexcel – June 2019

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 02 – Paper 2

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 2

Examiners’ Report Summary – Edexcel Paper E Spoken Language Endorsement

Edexcel – June 2018

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Language 1EN0 02 – Paper 2

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 1

Examiners’ Report Summary – GCSE English Literature 1ET0 01 – Paper 2


AQA 2017

AQA GCSE English Language Paper 1 (8700/1) Explorations in creative reading and writing

AQA GCSE English Language Paper 2 (8700/2) Writers’ viewpoints and perspectives

AQA GCSE English Literature Paper 1 (8702/1) Shakespeare and the 19th-century novel

AQA GCSE English Literature Paper 2 (8702/2) Modern texts and poetry

 

Thank you once again to Becky for the templates and idea!

 

Structure (Gothic)

Help, tips and assistance for students. This blog is part of a range specifically for students and can be found, along with others, under Student GCSE Blogs.

This is a typical question for P1 Q3 Structure:

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And these are the skill descriptors you need to meet:

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You must comment on effective structural features an author has made.

Remember you will analyse a larger extract, with several structural features. The ones I’ve used below are a single paragraph. At the end I’ve listed structural features to look out for.

The Woman in Black – Susan Hill

Baffled I stood and waited, straining to listen through the mist. What I heard next chilled and horrified me, even though I could neither understand nor account for it. The noise of the pony and trap grew fainter and then stopped abruptly and away on the marsh was a curious draining, sucking, churning sound, which went on, together with the shrill neighing and whinnying of a horse in panic, and then I heard another cry, a shout, a terrified sobbing – it was hard to decipher – but with horror I realised that it came from a child. I stood absolutely helpless in the mist that clouded me and everything from my sight, almost weeping in an agony of fear and frustration, and I knew that I was hearing, beyond any doubt, the appalling last noises of a pony and trap, carrying a child in it, as well as whatever adult – presumably Keckwick – was driving and was even now struggling desperately. It had somehow lost the causeway path and fallen into the marshes and was being dragged under by the quicksand and the pull of the incoming tide.

Structural techniques/features:

  • focus begins on the character listening in the darkness
  • clause order of first two sentences – consider Hill’s initial emphasis, question why?
  • then the third very complex sentence full of compounds, clauses and punctuation talking in 1st person. Could represent the character’s disorientation.
  • semantic field/pattern of language associated with hysteria and confusion
  • then the final sentence full of terrifying emotive language

Wuthering Heights – Emily Bronte

This time, I remembered I was lying in the oak closet, and I heard distinctly the gusty wind, and the driving of the snow; I heard, also, the fir bough repeat its teasing sound, and ascribed it to the right cause: but it annoyed me so much, that I resolved to silence it, if possible; and, I thought, I rose and endeavoured to unhasp the casement. The hook was soldered into the staple: a circumstance observed by me when awake, but forgotten.  ‘I must stop it, nevertheless!’ I muttered, knocking my knuckles through the glass, and stretching an arm out to seize the importunate branch; instead of which, my fingers closed on the fingers of a little, ice-cold hand!  The intense horror of nightmare came over me: I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clung to it, and a most melancholy voice sobbed, ‘Let me in–let me in!’  ‘Who are you?’ I asked, struggling, meanwhile, to disengage myself.  ‘Catherine Linton,’it replied, shiveringly (why did I think of _Linton_?

Structural techniques/features:

  • extract focuses on the character’s thoughts and what they appear to be seeing
  • a series of complex sentences with several breaks (semi-colons) could represent how the character feels in the nightmare
  • the dialogue in the middle of the text, disorientates the reader
  • Use of exclamation marks to convey emotion character feels

NORTHANGER ABBEY-Jane Austen

Catherine’s heart beat quick, but her courage did not fail her. With a cheek flushed by hope, and an eye straining with curiosity, her fingers grasped the handle of a drawer and drew it forth. It was entirely empty. With less alarm and greater eagerness she seized a second, a third, a fourth; each was equally empty. Not one was left unsearched, and in not one was anything found. Well read in the art of concealing a treasure, the possibility of false linings to the drawers did not escape her, and she felt round each with anxious acuteness in vain. The place in the middle alone remained now unexplored; and though she had “never from the first had the smallest idea of finding anything in any part of the cabinet, and was not in the least disappointed at her ill success thus far, it would be foolish not to examine it thoroughly while she was about it.”

Structural techniques/features:

  • language such as quick, greater eagerness, heightens the pace of the extract for the reader
  • nearly all sentences are complex with main part of clause first, building the tension in the scene
  • Focus is all on Catherine and her search in the room
  • all in 3rd person as if we’re watching her.

The Castle Of Otranto –  H Walpole

The lower part of the castle was hollowed into several intricate cloisters, and it was not easy for one under so much anxiety to find the door that opened into the cavern.  An awful silence reigned throughout those subterraneous regions, except now and then some blasts of wind that shook the doors she had passed, and which, grating on the rusty hinges, were re-echoed through that long labyrinth of darkness.  Every murmur struck her with new terror; yet more she dreaded to hear the wrathful voice of Manfred urging his domestics to pursue her.

Structural techniques/features:

  • the focus is on the underneath of the Castle (the setting)
  • language such as anxiety will make the journey tense for reader
  • language such as cavern, lower part, Castle, will create a dark, enclosed setting building the fear felt
  • first is a very long, complex sentence full of punctuation, followed by a second complex sentence. both are descriptive and highlight a frightening journey

The Monk – M. G. Lewis

I hesitated not to obey her: but unwilling to leave the Baroness a victim to the vengeance of the Robbers, I raised her in my arms still sleeping, and hastened after Marguerite.  The Horses of the Banditti were fastened near the door:  My Conductress sprang upon one of them. I followed her example, placed the Baroness before me, and spurred on my Horse.  Our only hope was to reach Strasbourg, which was much nearer than the perfidious Claude had assured me.  Marguerite was well acquainted with the road, and galloped on before me.  We were obliged to pass by the Barn, where the Robbers were slaughtering our Domestics. The door was open:  We distinguished the shrieks of the dying and imprecations of the Murderers!  What I felt at that moment language is unable to describe!

Structural techniques/features:

  • focuses on an escape, switches from character to the robbers to add excitement and tension to the scene
  • written in 1st person POV
  • last two sentences end with an exclamation mark
  • verbs such as hastened, sprang and spurred, add to the pace of the scene for the reader
  • emotive language such as slaughtering, dying and murderers will add fear at the end of the scene

 

The Picture of Dorian Gray – Oscar Wilde

Dorian Gray glanced at the picture, and suddenly an uncontrollable feeling of hatred for Basil Hallward came over him, as though it had been suggested to him by the image on the canvas, whispered into his ear by those grinning lips.  The mad passions of a hunted animal stirred within him, and he loathed the man who was seated at the table, more than in his whole life he had ever loathed anything.  He glanced wildly around.  Something glimmered on the top of the painted chest that faced him.  His eye fell on it.  He knew what it was.  It was a knife that he had brought up, some days before, to cut a piece of cord, and had forgotten to take away with him.  He moved slowly towards it, passing Hallward as he did so.  As soon as he got behind him, he seized it and turned round.  Hallward stirred in his chair as if he was going to rise.  He rushed at him and dug the knife into the great vein that is behind the ear, crushing the man’s head down on the table and stabbing again and again.

Structural techniques/features:

  • The focus is on Dorian Gray
  • language such as adverb ‘suddenly’ are shocking because it was unexpected.
  • In the middle, Wilde uses simple sentences to build the tension and callousness Gray murders his friend
  • Then switches to longer more descriptive sentences similar to Gray’s movements ‘slowly towards’
  • then the final sentence focuses on the murder and the frenzied attack

 

This question assesses how the writer has structured a text.  Look for

  1. a new paragraph – a shift in perspective, character, setting.
  2. look at the beginning/end of the extract.
  3. look for a topic change.
  4. look for exclamation marks they indicate excitement/anger or sense of urgency.
  5. look for short sentences, suggest faster pace, the building of tension.
  6. look for verbs that mirror actions eg run may suggest pace picks up!
  7. look for comparisons (simile/metaphor) that add to the pace of action.
  8. look for complex sentences that mirror the characters/setting mood/action.
  9. look for clause order, which is at the start, main or subordinate clause.
  10. look for patterns in words that suggest ongoing action.
  11. look for adjectives/adverbs that add to meaning in an extract eg a train moved angrily.
  12. look for descriptive writing/dialogue in an extract.
  13. what is a reader drawn to see/think or feel?
  14. are certain elements foregrounded? If so why?
  15. look for conjunctions connecting events.

 

Thank you for reading.